Notes concerning spectatorship and framing:
Richard F. Outcault, "First championship Game of the Hogan's Alley baseball Team," cartoon,New York World 12 Apr. 1896; rpt. in R.F. Outcault'sThe Yellow Kid: A CentennialCelebration of the Kid Who Started the Comics,(Northampton, Massachusetts:Kitchen Sink Press, 1995) plate 15.