Notes concerning the business of the strips:
Notes concerning spectatorship and framing:
Richard F. Outcault et al., cover for American Humorist, New York Journal 3 Oct. 1897; rpt. in R.F. Outcault'sThe Yellow Kid: A CentennialCelebration of the Kid Who Started the Comics,(Northampton, Massachusetts:Kitchen Sink Press, 1995) plate 86.