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David Bordwell reports that Sergei Tretyakov "promoted [Eisenstein's 1923 production of the play The Wiseman] by publishing in Lef Eisenstein's manifesto 'Montage of Attractions,' in which the director explains that the theatre could engage its audience through a calculated assembly of 'strong moments' of shock or surprise. Tretyakov praised the theory of attractions as offering a way to shape the spectator's psyche for social tasks" (The Cinema of Eiseinstein 6).