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"The Electronic Hive: Two Views"
REFUSE IT by Sven Birkerts v. EMBRACE
IT by Kevin Kelly
Originally published in Harper's Magazine (May 1994).
REFUSE IT by Sven Birkerts
Adapted from The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic
Age, by Sven Birkerts.
The digital future is upon us. From our President on down, people are
smitten, more than they have been with anything in a very long time.
I can't open a newspaper without reading another story about the Internet,
the information highway. The dollar, not the poet, is the antenna of
the race, and right now the dollar is all about mergers and acquisitions:
the fierce battles being waged for control of the system that will allow
us, soon enough, to cohabit in the all but infinite information space.
The dollar is smart. It is betting that the trend will be a juggernaut,
unstoppable; that we are collectively ready to round the comer into
a new age. We are not about to turn from this millennial remaking of
the world; indeed, we are all excited to see just how much power and
ingenuity we command. By degrees--it is happening year by year, appliance
by appliance--we are wiring ourselves into a gigantic hive.
When we look at the large-scale shift to an electronic culture, looking
as if at a time-lapse motion study, we can see not only how our situation
has come about but also how it is in our nature that it should have.
At every step--this is clear--we trade for ease. And ease is what quickly
swallows up the initial strangeness of a new medium or tool. Moreover,
each accommodation paves the way for the next. The telegraph must have
seemed to its first users a surpassingly strange device, but its newfangledness
was overridden by its usefulness. Once we had accepted the idea of mechanical
transmission over distances, the path was clear for the telephone. Again,
a monumental transformation: turn select digits on a dial and hear the
voice of another human being. And on it goes, the inventions coming
gradually, one by one, allowing the society to adapt. We mastered the
telephone, the television with its few networks running black-and-white
programs. And although no law required citizens to own or use either,
these technologies did in a remarkably short time achieve near total
We are, then, accustomed to the process; we take the step that will
enlarge our reach, simplify our communication, and abbreviate our physical
involvement in some task or chore. The difference between the epoch
of early modernity and the present is--to simplify drastically--that
formerly the body had time to accept the graft, the new organ, whereas
now we are hurtling forward willy-nilly, assuming that if a technology
is connected with communications or information processing it must be
good, we must need it. I never cease to be astonished at what a mere
two decades have brought us. Consider the evidence. Since the early
1970s we have seen the arrival of--we have accepted, deemed all but
indispensable--personal computers, laptops, telephone-answering machines,
calling cards, fax machines, cellular phones, VCRs, modems, Nintendo
games, E-mail, voice mail, camcorders, and CD players. Very quickly,
with almost no pause between increments, these circuit-driven tools
and entertainments have moved into our lives, and with a minimum rippling
of the waters, really--which, of course, makes them seem natural, even
inevitable. Which perhaps they are. Marshall McLuhan called improvements
of this sort "extensions of man," and this is their secret.
We embrace them because they seem a part of us, an enhancement. They
don't seem to challenge our power so much as add to it.
I am startled, though, by how little we are debating the deeper philosophical
ramifications. We talk up a storm when it comes to policy issues--who
should have jurisdiction, what rates may be charged--and there is great
fascination in some quarters with the practical minutiae of functioning,
compatibility, and so on. But why do we hear so few people asking whether
we might not ourselves be changing, and whether the changes are necessarily
for the good?
In our technological obsession we may be forgetting that circuited interconnectedness
and individualism are, at a primary level, inimical notions, warring
terms. Being "on line" and having the subjective experience
of depth, of existential coherence, are mutually exclusive situations.
Electricity and inwardness are fundamentally discordant. Electricity
is, implicitly, of the moment--now. Depth, meaning, and the narrative
structuring of subjectivity--these are not now; they flourish only in
that order of time Henri Bergson called "duration." Duration
is deep time, time experienced without the awareness of time passing.
Until quite recently--I would not want to put a date to it--most people
on the planet lived mainly in terms of duration: time not artificially
broken, but shaped around natural rhythmic cycles; time bound to the
integrated functioning of the senses.
We have destroyed that duration. We have created invisible elsewheres
that are as immediate as our actual surroundings. We have fractured
the flow of time, layered it into competing simultaneities. We learn
to do five things at once or pay the price. Immersed in an environment
of invisible signals and operations, we find it as unthinkable to walk
five miles to visit a friend as it was once unthinkable to speak across
that distance through a wire.
My explanation for our blithe indifference to the inward consequences
of our becoming "wired" is simple. I believe that we are--biologically,
neuropsychologically--creatures of extraordinary adaptability. We fit
ourselves to situations, be they ones of privation or beneficent surplus.
And in many respects this is to the good. The species is fit because
it knows how to fit.
But there are drawbacks as well. The late Walker Percy made it his work
to explore the implications of our constant adaptation. Over and over,
in his fiction as well as his speculative essays, he asks the same basic
questions. As he writes in the opening of his essay "The Delta
Factor": "Why does man feel so sad in the twentieth century?
Why does man feel so bad in the very age when, more than in any other
age, he has succeeded in satisfying his needs and making over the world
for his own use?" One of his answers is that the price of adaptation
is habit, and that habit--habit of perception as well as behavior--distances
the self from the primary things that give meaning and purpose to life.
We accept these gifts of technology, these labor-saving devices, these
extensions of the senses, by adapting and adapting again. Each improvement
provides a new level of abstraction to which we accommodate ourselves.
Abstraction is, however, a movement away from the natural given--a step
away from our fundamental selves rooted for millennia in an awe before
the unknown, a fear and trembling in the face of the outer dark. We
widen the gulf, and if at some level we fear the widening, we respond
by investing more of our faith in the systems we have wrought.
We sacrifice the potential life of the solitary self by enlisting ourselves
in the collective. For this is finally--even more than the saving of
labor—what these systems are all about. They are not only extensions
of the senses; they are extensions of the senses that put us in touch
with the extended senses of others. The ultimate point of the ever-expanding
electronic web is to bridge once and for all the individual solitude
that has hitherto always set the terms of existence. Each appliance
is a strand, another addition to the virtual place wherein we will all
find ourselves together. Telephone, fax, computer networks, E-mail,
interactive television--these are the components out of which the hive
is being built. The end of it all, the telos, is a kind of amniotic
environment of impulses, a condition of connectedness. And in time--I
don't know how long it will take it will feel as strange (and exhilarating)
for a person to stand momentarily free of it as it feels now for a city
dweller to look up at night and see a sky full of stars.
Whether this sounds dire or not depends upon your assumptions about
the human condition--assumptions, that is, in the largest sense. For
those who ask, with Gauguin, "Who are we? Why are we here? Where
are we going?"--and who feel that the answering of those questions
is the grand mission of the species--the prospect of a collective life
in an electronic hive is bound to seem terrifying. But there are others,
maybe even a majority, who have never except fleetingly posed those
same questions, who have repressed them so that they might "get
on, "and who gravitate toward that life because they see it as
a way of vanquishing once and for all the anxious gnawings they feel
whenever any intimations of depth sneak through the inner barriers.
My core fear is that we are, as a culture, as a species, becoming shallower;
that we have turned from depth--from the Judeo-Christian premise of
unfathomable mystery--and are adapting ourselves to the ersatz security
of a vast lateral connectedness. That we are giving up on wisdom, the
struggle for which has for millennia been central to the very idea of
culture, and that we are pledging instead to a faith in the web. There
is, finally, a tremendous difference between communication in the instrumental
sense and communion in the affective, soul-oriented sense. Somewhere
we have gotten hold of the idea that the more all-embracing we can make
our communications networks, the closer we will be to that connection
that we long for deep down. For change us as they will, our technologies
have not yet eradicated that flame of a desire--not merely to be in
touch, but to be, at least figuratively, embraced, known and valued
not abstractly but in presence. We seem to believe that our instruments
can get us there, but they can't. Their great power is all in the service
of division and acceleration. They work in--and create--an unreal time
that has nothing to do with the deep time in which we thrive: the time
of his, tory, tradition, ritual, art, and true communion.
The proselytizers have shown me their vision, and in my more susceptible
moods I have felt myself almost persuaded. I have imagined what it could
be like, our toil and misery replaced by a vivid, pleasant dream. Fingers
tap keys,oceans of fact and sensation get downloaded, are dissolved
through the nervous system. Bottomless wells of data are accessed and
manipulated, everything flowing at circuit speed. Gone the rock in the
field, the broken hoe, the grueling distances. "History,"
said Stephen Daedalus, "is a nightmare from whichI am trying to
awaken." This may be the awakening, but it feels curiously like
the fantasies that circulate through our sleep. From deep in the heart
I hear the voice that says, "Refuse it."
IT by Kevin Kelly
Adapted from Out of Control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization.
Kelly is a former editor of the Whole Earth Review and one of the founders
of the WELL, a computer-conferencing system. He is currently the executive
editor of Wired magazine.
If twentieth-century science can be said to have a single icon, it is
the Atom. As depicted in the popular mind, the symbol of the Atom is
stark: a black dot encircled by the hairline orbits of several smaller
dots. The Atom whirls alone, the epitome of singleness. It is the metaphor
for individuality. At its center is the animus, the It, the life force,
holding all to their appropriate whirling station. The Atom stands for
power and knowledge and certainty. It conveys the naked power of simplicity.
The iconic reign of the Atom is now passing. The symbol of science for
the next century is the dynamic Net. The icon of the Net, in contradistinction
to the Atom, has no center. It is a bunch of dots connected to other
dots, a cobweb of arrows pouring into one another, squirming together
like a nest of snakes, the restless image fading at indeterminate edges.
The Net is the archetype displayed to represent all circuits, all intelligence,
all interdependence, all things economic and social and ecological,
all communications, all democracy, all groups, all large systems. This
icon is slippery, ensnaring the unwary in its paradox of no beginning,
no end, no center.
The Net conveys the logic of both the computer and nature. In nature,
the Net finds form in, for example, the beehive. The hive is irredeemably
social, unabashedly of many minds, but it decides as a whole when to
swarm and where to move. A hive possesses an intelligence that none
of its parts does. A single honeybee brain operates with a memory of
six days; the hive as a whole operates with a memory of three months,
twice as long as the average bee lives.
Although many philosophers in the past have suspected that one could
abstract the laws of life and apply them to machines, it wasn't until
computers and human-made systems became as complex as living things--as
intricately composed as a beehive--that it was possible to prove this.
Just as a beehive functions as if it were a single sentient organism,
so does an electronic hive, made up of millions of buzzing, dim-witted
personal computers, behave like a single organism. Out of networked
parts--whether of insects, neurons, or chip--some learning, evolution,
and life. Out of a planet-wide swarm of silicon calculators comes an
emergent self-governing intelligence: the Net. I live on computer networks.
The network of networks--the Net, also known as the Internet--links
several million personal computers around the world. No one knows exactly
how many millions are connected, or even how many intermediate nodes
there are. The Internet Society made an educated guess last year that
the Net was made up of 1.7 million host computers and 17 million users.
Like the beehive, the Net is controlled by no one; no one is in charge.
The Net is, as its users are proud to boast, the largest functioning
anarchy in the world. Every day hundreds of millions of messages are
passed between its members without the benefit of a central authority.
In addition to a vast flow of individual letters, there exists between
its wires that disembodied cyberspace where messages interact, a shared
space of written public conversations. Every day authors all over the
world add millions of words to an uncountable number of overlapping
conversations. They daily build an immense distributed document, one
that is under eternal construction, in constant flux, and of fleeting
permanence. The users of this media are creating an entirely new writing
space, far different from that carved out by a printed book or even
a chat around a table. Because of this impermanence, the type of thought
encouraged by the Net tends toward the non-dogmatic--the experimental
idea, the quip, the global perspective, the interdisciplinary synthesis,
and the uninhibited, often emotional, response. Many participants prefer
the quality of writing on the Net to book writing because Net writing
is of a conversational, peer-to-peer style, frank and communicative,
rather than precise and self-consciously literary. Instead of the rigid
canonical thinking cultivated by the book, the Net stimulates another
way of thinking: telegraphic, modular, non-linear, malleable, cooperative.
A person on the Internet sees the world in a different light. He or
she views the world as decidedly decentralized, every far-flung member
a producer as well as a consumer, all parts of it equidistant from all
others, no matter how large it gets, and every participant responsible
for manufacturing truth out of a noisy cacophony of ideas, opinions,
and facts. There is no central meaning, no official canon, no manufactured
consent rippling through the wires from which one can borrow a viewpoint.
Instead, every idea has a backer, and every backer has an idea, while
contradiction, paradox, irony, and multifaceted truth rise up in a flood.
A recurring vision swirls in the shared mind of the Net, a vision that
nearly every member glimpses, if only momentarily: of wiring human and
artificial minds into one planetary soul. This incipient techno-spiritualism
is all the more remarkable because of how unexpected it has been. The
Net, after all, is nothing more than a bunch of highly engineered pieces
of rock braided together with strands of metal or glass. It is routine
technology. Computers, which have been in our lives for twenty years,
have made our life faster but not that much different. Nobody expected
a new culture, a new thrill, or even a new politics to be born when
we married calculating circuits with the ordinary telephone; but that's
exactly what happened.
There are other machines, such as the automobile and the air conditioner,
that have radically reshaped our lives and the landscape of our civilization.
The Net (and its future progeny) is another one of those disrupting
machines and may yet surpass the scope of all the others together in
altering how we live.
The Net is an organism/machine whose exact size and boundaries are unknown.
All we do know is that new portions and new uses are being added to
it at such an accelerating rate that it may be more of an explosion
than a thing. So vast is this embryonic Net, and so fast is it developing
into something else, that no single human can fathom it deeply enough
to claim expertise on the whole.
The tiny bees in a hive are more or less unaware of their colony, but
their collective hive mind transcends their small bee minds. As we wire
ourselves up into a hivish network, many things will emerge that we,
as mere neurons in the network, don't expect, don't understand, can't
control, or don't even perceive. That's the price for any emergent hive
At the same time the very shape of this network space shapes us. It
is no coincidence that the post-modernists arose as the networks formed.
In the last half-century a uniform mass market has collapsed into a
network of small niches--the result of the information tide. An aggregation
of fragments is the only kind of whole we now have. The fragmentation
of business markets, of social mores, of spiritual beliefs, of ethnicity,
and of truth itself into tinier and tinier shards is the hallmark of
this era. Our society is a working pandemonium of fragments--much like
the Internet itself.
People in a highly connected yet deeply fragmented society can no longer
rely on a central canon for guidance. They are forced into the modem
existential blackness of creating their own cultures, beliefs, markets,
and identities from a sticky mess of interdependent pieces. The industrial
icon of a grand central or a hidden "I am" becomes hollow.
Distributed, headless, emergent wholeness becomes the social ideal.
The critics of early computers capitalized on a common fear: that a
Big Brother brain would watch over us and control us. What we know now
of our own brains is that they too are only networks of mini-minds,
a society of dumber minds linked together, and that when we peer into
them deeply we find that there is no "I" in charge. Not only
does a central-command economy not work; a central-command brain won't
either. In its stead, we can make a nation of personal computers, a
country of de, centralized nodes of governance and thought. Almost every
type of large-scale governance we can find, from the body of a giraffe,
to the energy regulation in a tidal marsh, to the temperature regulation
of a beehive, to the flow of traffic on the Internet, resolves into
a swarmy distributed net of autonomous units and heterogeneous parts.
No one has been more wrong about computerization than George Orwell
in 1984.So far, nearly everything about the actual possibility-space
that computers have created indicates they are not the beginning of
authority but its end. In the process of connecting everything to everything,
computers elevate the power of the small player. They make room for
the different, and they reward small innovations. Instead of enforcing
uniformity, they promote heterogeneity and autonomy. Instead of sucking
the soul from human bodies, turning computer users into an army of dull
clones, networked computers--by reflecting the networked nature of our
own brains--encourage the humanism of their users. Because they have
taken on the flexibility, adaptability, and self-connecting governance
of organic systems, we become more human, not less so, when we use them.