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Since 1810, social critics in Buenos Aires had long been concerned about young people from the lower classes—especially young men—exercising greater independence within the home. With the decline of parental authority, they were alarmed at the… [more]

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This chart demonstrates the fluctuating attendance rates of school aged children in a select number of schools in Buenos Aires between 1815 and 1831. This is not a complete list of the port city’s schools; it represents schools that maintained the… [more]

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Jesse Hingson

Shifting boundaries of parental roles and expectations, young people's behaviors, and social status in early to mid-19th century Argentina are examined through a variety of primary sources, helping students to understand the reasons for underdevelopment, authoritarianism, and political instability in Argentina past and shedding light on such continuing problems in Latin America today.

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Suggestion for handling orphans, devised in 1655 by Manoel Severim de Faria, an official for the bishop of Evora in Portugal. Here Severim de Faria speaks about the role orphaned children could and should play in the Portuguese empire. Students need… [more]

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One of the very first slave narratives, The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797), served as a prototype for the well-known slave autobiographies of the 19th century written by such fugitive slaves as Frederick Douglass and Harriet… [more]

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Steven Mintz

Analysis of excerpts from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa the African helps students to reconstruct children's experience under slavery, to place slavery in a world history perspective, and to explore the problems facing historians in assessing evidence and addressing the problematic nature of sources. echo [more]

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Joseph Thomson traveled through Kenya Maasailand from 1883 to 1884 on a journey of exploration from the coast to Mt Kenya and Lake Victoria, under the auspices of the Royal Geographical Society. He was the second European to visit the area. Thomson… [more]

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British colonialism in what became Kenya began officially in 1895 and lasted until 1963, but the Maasai themselves were not effectively under British rule until just before the First World War. This letter is one of a series concerning a riot at… [more]

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British colonialism in what became Kenya began officially in 1895 and lasted until 1963, but the Maasai themselves were not effectively under British rule until just before the First World War. These excerpts come from longer interviews conducted in… [more]

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Richard Waller

Documents from 1880 to 1973 on the Eastern African Maasai provide a case study with a specifically African and a world history context, in which students examine how this age-set society divides the male life-cycle into distinct stages, and how societies socialize the young and manage generational tension. echo [more]