- Hsiung, Ping-chen. A Tender Voyage: Children and Childhood in Late Imperial China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005, 103-27.
This reading helps contextualize Primary Source No. 6 (early education). Since my module focuses on early China, Hsiung's book is an excellent introduction to the history of childhood in mid- and late imperial China
- Kinney, Anne. Representations of Childhood and Youth in Early China. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004, 53-96.
This reading provides further discussion of the parents' right of life and death over their offspring and may be used to supplement primary Source No. 3. The entire book also provides copious materials to contextualize all of the primary sources in this module.
- Waltner, Ann. “Infanticide and Dowry in Ming and Early Qing China.” In Chinese Views of Childhood, edited by Anne Kinney, 193-218. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1995.
While this book is useful for providing background for this module, Waltner's article that discusses the link between the practice of female infanticide and girls' prospects for marriage can help contextualize Primary Source no. 3 (infanticide) as well as Primary Source No. 4 (A Girl prodigy).
- Waltner, Ann. “Representations of Children in Three Stories from Biographies of Exemplary Women.” In Children in Chinese Art, edited by Ann Barrott Wicks, 84-107. Honolulu, University of Hawaii Press, 2002.
This article, one of many useful resources in the book in which it appears, discusses several different depictions of the story relayed in Primary Source no. 1—the childhood of the philosopher Mencius (Mengzi)—and the cultural connotations of each individual representation. An additional illustration of this story appears in Hsiung's book (cited above), on p. 138.
How to Cite This Source
Anne Kinney, "Ancient China," in Children and Youth in History, Item #187, http://chnm.gmu.edu/cyh/teaching-modules/187 (accessed March 10, 2014).
- Primary Sources
- "Mencius and his Mother: A Lesson Drawn from Weaving" [Literary Excerpt and Illustration]
- The Boy Prodigy: Xiang Tuo [Stone Carving]
- Legal and Political Status of the Infant [Legal Text]
- Biography of Empress Deng [Literary Excerpt]
- The Book of Rites, The Birth of a Child [Literary Excerpt]
- The Book of Rites, Early Education and Gender Differentiation [Literary Excerpt]
- Learning begins in the Womb: Fetal Instruction [Official Document]
- Mourning Rituals for Deceased Children [Tribute]
- The Child as Microcosm [Literary Excerpt]
- The Child in Early Chinese Social Hierarchy: The Biography of Li Shan [Literary Excerpt]