SOL Standards

Grade 4
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 11

Fairfax County Program of Studies (POS) Standards

Grade 4
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 11

Learning Strategy Objectives

Historical Thinking Standards

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SOL Standards

Grade 4 - Virginia Studies

The standards for Virginia Studies allow students to develop a greater understanding of Virginia's rich history, from the early settlements of American Indian language groups and the founding of Jamestown to the present. Geographic, economic, and civic concepts are presented within this historic context. Students will develop the skills needed to analyze, interpret, and demonstrate knowledge of important events and ideas in our history, and understand the contributions made by people of diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. Students will use geographic tools to examine the influence of physical and cultural geography on Virginia history. Ideas that form the foundation for political institutions in Virginia and the United States also are included as part of the story of Virginia.

Skills:

    VS.1 The student will develop skills for historical and geographical analysis including the ability to:
  1. identify and interpret artifacts and primary and secondary source documents to understand events in history;
  2. determine cause and effect relationships;
  3. compare and contrast historical events;
  4. draw conclusions and make generalizations;
  5. make connections between past and present;
  6. sequence events in Virginia history;
  7. interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;
  8. evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;
  9. analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.

    Virginia: The Land and Its First Inhabitants
    VS.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the geography and early inhabitants of Virginia by:
  1. locating Virginia and its bordering states on maps of the United States;
  2. locating and describing Virginia's Coastal Plain (Tidewater), Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau;
  3. locating and identifying water features important to the early history of Virginia (Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake Bay, James River, York River, Potomac River, and Rappahannock River);
  4. locating three American Indian (First American) language groups (the Algonquian, the Siouan, and the Iroquoian) on a map of Virginia;
  5. describing how American Indians (First Americans) adapted to the climate and their environment to secure food, clothing, and shelter.

    Colonization and Conflict: 1607 through the American Revolution
    VS.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the first permanent Englishsettlement in America by
  1. explaining the reasons for English colonization;
  2. describing how geography influenced the decision to settle at Jamestown;
  3. identifying the importance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London in establishing the Jamestown settlement;
  4. identifying the importance of the Virginia Assembly(1619) as the first representative legislative body in English America;
  5. identifying the importance of the arrival of Africans and women to the Jamestown settlement;
  6. describing the hardships faced by settlers at Jamestown and the changes that took place to ensure survival;
  7. describing the interactions between the English settlers and the Powhatan people, including the contributions of the Powhatans to the survival of the settlers.

    VS.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of life in the Virginia colony by:
  1. explaining the importance of agriculture and its influence on the institution of slavery;
  2. describing how European (English, Scotch-Irish, German) immigrants, Africans, and American Indians (First Americans) influenced the cultural landscape and changed the relationship between the Virginia colony and England;
  3. explaining how geography influenced the relocation of Virginia's capital from Jamestown to Williamsburg to Richmond;
  4. describing how money, barter, and credit were used.

    VS.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the American Revolution by:
  1. identifying the reasons why the colonies went to war with England as expressed in the Declaration of Independence;
  2. identifying the various roles played by Virginians in the Revolutionary War era, with emphasis on George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry;
  3. identifying the importance of the American victory at Yorktown.

    Political Growth and Western Expansion: 1781 to the Mid 1800s
    VS.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of Virginia in the establishment of the new American nation by:
  1. explaining why George Washington is called the "Father of our Country" and James Madison is called the "Father of the Constitution";
  2. identifying the ideas of George Mason and Thomas Jefferson as expressed in the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom;
  3. explaining the influence of geography on the migration of Virginians into western territories.

    Civil War and Post-War Eras
    VS.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by:
  1. identifying the events and differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia;
  2. describing Virginia's role in the war, including identifying major battles that took place in Virginia.
    VS.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the reconstruction of Virginia following the Civil War by:
  1. identifying the effects of Reconstruction on life in Virginia;
  2. identifying the effects of segregation and "Jim Crow" on life in Virginia;
  3. describing the importance of railroads, new industries, and the growth of cities to Virginia's economic development.

    Virginia: 1900 to the Present
    VS.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of twentieth century Virginia by:
  1. describing the economic and social transition from a rural, agricultural society to a more urban, industrialized society, including the reasons people came to Virginia from other states and countries;
  2. identifying the social and political events in Virginia linked to desegregation and Massive Resistance and their relationship to national history;
  3. identifying the political, social, and/or economic contributions made by Maggie Walker, Harry F. Byrd, Sr., Arthur R. Ashe, Jr., and L. Douglas Wilder.
    VS.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of government, geography, and economics by:
  1. identifying the three branches of Virginia government and the function of each;
  2. describing the major products and industries of Virginia's five geographic regions;
  3. explaining how advances in transportation, communications, and technology have contributed to Virginia's prosperity and role in the global economy.

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Grade 6 - United States History to 1877

Students will use skills of historical and geographical analysis to explore the early history of the United States and understand ideas and events that strengthened the union. The standards for this course relate to the history of the United States from pre-Columbian times until 1877. Students will continue to learn fundamental concepts in civics, economics, and geography as they study United States history in chronological sequence and learn about change and continuity in our history. They also will study documents and speeches that laid the foundation of American ideals and institutions and will examine the everyday life of people at different times in the country's history through the use of primary and secondary sources.

Skills

    USI.1 The student will develop skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to:
  1. identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1877;
  2. make connections between the past and the present;
  3. sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877;
  4. interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;
  5. evaluate and discuss issues orally and in writing;
  6. analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events;
  7. distinguish between parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude;
  8. interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.

    Geography
    USI.2 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, and tables to:
  1. locate the seven continents;
  2. locate and describe the location of the geographic regions of North America: Coastal Plain, Appalachian Mountains, Canadian Shield, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Basin and Range, and Coastal Range;
  3. locate and identify the water features important to the early history of the United States: Great Lakes, Mississippi River, Missouri River, Ohio River, Columbia River, Colorado River, Rio Grande, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Exploration to Revolution: Pre-Columbian Times to the 1770s
    USI.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how early cultures developed in North America by:
  1. locating where the American Indians (First Americans) settled, with emphasis on Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plains (Sioux), Southwest (Pueblo), and Eastern Woodland (Iroquois);
  2. describing how the American Indians (First Americans) used their environment to obtain food, clothing, and shelter.
    USI.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of European exploration in North America and West Africa by:
  1. describing the motivations, obstacles, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English explorations;
  2. describing cultural interactions between Europeans and American Indians (First Americans) that led to cooperation and conflict;
  3. identifying the location and describing the characteristics of West African societies (Ghana, Mali, and Songhai) and their interactions with traders.
    USI.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the factors that shaped colonial America by:
  1. describing the religious and economic events and conditions that led to the colonization of America;
  2. comparing and contrasting life in the New England, Mid-Atlantic, and Southern colonies, with emphasis on how people interacted with their environment;
  3. describing colonial life in America from the perspectives of large landowners, farmers, artisans, women, indentured servants, and slaves;
  4. identifying the political and economic relationships between the colonies and England.

    Revolution and the New Nation: 1770s to the Early 1800s
    USI.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes and results of the American Revolution by:
  1. identifying the issues of dissatisfaction that led to the American Revolution;
  2. identifying how political ideas shaped the revolutionary movement in America and led to the Declaration of Independence, with emphasis on the ideas of John Locke;
  3. describing key events and the roles of key individuals in the American Revolution, with emphasis on George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Paine;
  4. explaining reasons why the colonies were able to defeat Britain.
    USI.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the challenges faced by the new nation by:
  1. identifying the weaknesses of the government established by the Articles of Confederation;
  2. identifying the basic principles of the new government established by the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of Rights;
  3. identifying the conflicts that resulted in the emergence of two political parties;
  4. describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.

    Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861
    USI.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by:
  1. describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States, with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California;
  2. identifying the geographic and economic factors that influenced the westward movement of settlers;
  3. describing the impact of inventions, including the cotton gin, the reaper, the steamboat, and the steam locomotive, on life in America;
  4. identifying the main ideas of the abolitionist and suffrage movements.

    Civil War and Reconstruction: 1860s to 1877

    USI.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by:
  1. describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation;
  2. explaining how the issues of states' rights and slavery increased sectional tensions;
  3. identifying on a map the states that seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union;
  4. describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war;
  5. using maps to explain critical developments in the war, including major battles;
  6. describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including black soldiers), women, and slaves.
    USI.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of Reconstruction on American life by:
  1. identifying the provisions of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States and their impact on the expansion of freedom in America;
  2. describing the impact of Reconstruction policies on the South.

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Grade 7 - United States History: 1877 to the Present

Students will continue to use skills of historical and geographical analysis as they examine American history since 1877. The standards for this course relate to the history of the United States from the end of the Reconstruction era to the present. Students should continue to learn fundamental concepts in civics, economics, and geography within the context of United States history. Political, economic, and social challenges facing the nation reunited after civil war will be examined chronologically as students develop an understanding of how the American experience shaped the world political and economic landscape.

Skills

    USII.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to:
  1. analyze and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history from 1877 to the present;
  2. make connections between past and present;
  3. sequence events in United States history from 1877 to the present;
  4. interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;
  5. evaluate and debate issues orally and in writing;
  6. analyze and interpret maps that include major physical features;
  7. use parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude to describe hemispheric location;
  8. interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.

    Geography
    USII.2 The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, and tables for:
  1. explaining how physical features and climate influenced the movement of people westward;
  2. explaining relationships among natural resources, transportation, and industrial development after 1877;
  3. locating the 50 states and the cities most significant to the historical development of the United States.

    Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of Modern America: 1877 to the Early 1900s
    USII.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how life changed after the Civil War by:
  1. identifying the reasons for westward expansion;
  2. explaining the reasons for the increase in immigration, growth of cities, new inventions, and challenges arising from this expansion;
  3. describing racial segregation, the rise of "Jim Crow," and other constraints faced by African Americans in the post-Reconstruction South;
  4. explaining the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and life on American farms;
  5. describing the impact of the Progressive Movement on child labor, working conditions, the rise of organized labor, women's suffrage, and the temperance movement.

    Turmoil and Change: 1890s to 1945
    USII.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the changing role of the United States from the late nineteenth century through World War I by:
  1. explaining the reasons for and results of the Spanish American War;
  2. explaining the reasons for the United States' involvement in World War I and its leadership role at the conclusion of the war.
    USII.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by:
  1. explaining how developments in transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life;
  2. describing the social changes that took place, including prohibition, and the Great Migration north;
  3. examining art, literature, and music from the 1920s and 1930s, emphasizing Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, and Georgia O'Keefe and including the Harlem Renaissance;
  4. identifying the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on Americans, and the major features of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal.
    USII.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major causes and effects of American involvement in World War II by:
  1. identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including the attack on Pearl Harbor;
  2. describing the major events and turning points of the war in Europe and the Pacific;
  3. describing the impact of World War II on the homefront.

    The United States since World War II
    USII.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the economic, social, and political transformation of the United States and the world between the end of World War II and the present by:
  1. describing the rebuilding of Europe and Japan after World War II, the emergence of the United States as a superpower, and the establishment of the United Nations;
  2. describing the conversion from a wartime to a peacetime economy;
  3. identifying the role of America's military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War, including the wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Cuban missile crisis, the collapse of communism in Europe, and the rise of new challenges;
  4. describing the changing patterns of society, including expanded educational and economic opportunities for military veterans, women, and minorities.
    USII.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the key domestic issues during the second half of the twentieth century by:
  1. examining the Civil Rights Movement and the changing role of women;
  2. describing the development of new technologies and their impact on American life.

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Grade 11 - Virginia and United States History

The standards for Virginia and United States History include the historical development of American ideas and institutions from the Age of Exploration to the present. While focusing on political and economic history, the standards provide students with a basic knowledge of American culture through a chronological survey of major issues, movements, people, and events in United States and Virginia history. Students should use historical and geographical analysis skills to explore in depth the events, people, and ideas that fostered our national identity and led to our country's prominence in world affairs.

Skills

    VUS.1 The student will demonstrate skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to:
  1. identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents, records, and data, including artifacts, diaries, letters, photographs, journals, newspapers, historical accounts, and art to increase understanding of events and life in the United States;
  2. evaluate the authenticity, authority, and credibility of sources;
  3. formulate historical questions and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation;
  4. develop perspectives of time and place, including the construction of maps and various time lines of events, periods, and personalities in American history;
  5. communicate findings orally and in analytical essays and/or comprehensive papers;
  6. develop skills in discussion, debate, and persuasive writing with respect to enduring issues and determine how divergent viewpoints have been addressed and reconciled;
  7. apply geographic skills and reference sources to understand how relationships between humans and their environment have changed over time;
  8. interpret the significance of excerpts from famous speeches and other documents.

    Early America: Early Claims, Early Conflicts
    VUS.2 The student will describe how early European exploration and colonization resulted in cultural interactions among Europeans, Africans, and American Indians (First Americans).
    VUS.3 The student will describe how the values and institutions of European economic life took root in the colonies and how slavery reshaped European and African life in the Americas.

    Revolution and the New Nation
    VUS.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of events and issues of the Revolutionary Period by:
  1. analyzing how the political ideas of John Locke and those expressed in Common Sense helped shape the Declaration of Independence;
  2. describing the political differences among the colonists concerning separation from Britain;
  3. analyzing reasons for colonial victory in the Revolutionary War.
    VUS.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the issues involved in the creation and ratification of the United States Constitution and how the principles of limited government, consent of the governed, and the social contract are embodied in it by:
  1. explaining the origins of the Constitution, including the Articles of Confederation;
  2. identifying the major compromises necessary to produce the Constitution, and the roles of James Madison and George Washington;
  3. describing the conflict over ratification, including the Bill of Rights and the arguments of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists;
  4. examining the significance of the Virginia Declaration of Rights and the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom in the framing of the Bill of Rights.

    Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1860
    VUS.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the major events during the first half of the nineteenth century by:
  1. identifying the economic, political, and geographic factors that led to territorial expansion and its impact on the American Indians (First Americans);
  2. describing the key features of the Jacksonian Era, with emphasis on federal banking policies;
  3. describing the cultural, economic, and political issues that divided the nation, including slavery, the abolitionist and women's suffrage movements, and the role of the states in the Union.

    Civil War and Reconstruction: 1860 to 1877
    VUS.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil War and Reconstruction Era and its importance as a major turning point in American history by:
  1. identifying the major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War Era, with emphasis on Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass;
  2. analyzing the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in Lincoln's Gettysburg Address;
  3. examining the political, economic, and social impact of the war and Reconstruction, including the adoption of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States.

    Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of Modern America: 1877 to 1930s
    VUS.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by:
  1. explaining the relationship among territorial expansion, westward movement of the population, new immigration, growth of cities, and the admission of new states to the Union;
  2. describing the transformation of the American economy from a primarily agrarian to a modern industrial economy and identifying major inventions that improved life in the United States;
  3. analyzing prejudice and discrimination during this time period, with emphasis on "Jim Crow" and the responses of Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois;
  4. identifying the impact of the Progressive Movement, including child labor and antitrust laws, the rise of labor unions, and the success of the women's suffrage movement.
    VUS.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the emerging role of the United States in world affairs and key domestic events after 1890 by:
  1. explaining the changing policies of the United States toward Latin America and Asia and the growing influence of the United States in foreign markets;
  2. evaluating United States involvement in World War I, including Wilson's Fourteen Points, the Treaty of Versailles, and the national debate over treaty ratification and the League of Nations;
  3. explaining the causes of the Great Depression, its impact on the American people, and the ways the New Deal addressed it.

    Conflict: The World at War: 1939 to 1945
    VUS.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of World War II by:
  1. identifying the causes and events that led to American involvement in the war, including military assistance to Britain and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor;
  2. describing the major battles and turning points of the war in North Africa, Europe, and the Pacific, including Midway, Stalingrad, the Normandy landing (D-Day), and Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb to force the surrender of Japan;
  3. describing the role of all-minority military units, including the Tuskegee Airmen and Nisei regiments;
  4. describing the Geneva Convention and the treatment of prisoners of war during World War II;
  5. analyzing the Holocaust (Hitler's "final solution"), its impact on Jews and other groups, and postwar trials of war criminals.
    VUS.11 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the effects of World War II on the home front by:
  1. explaining how the United States mobilized its economic, human, and military resources;
  2. describing the contributions of women and minorities to the war effort;
  3. explaining the internment of Japanese Americans during the war;
  4. describing the role of media and communications in the war effort.

    The United States since World War II
    VUS.12 The student will demonstrate knowledge of United States foreign policy since World War II by:
  1. describing outcomes of World War II, including political boundary changes, the formation of the United Nations, and the Marshall Plan;
  2. explaining the origins of the Cold War, and describing the Truman Doctrine and the policy of containment of communism, the American role in wars in Korea and Vietnam, and the role of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Europe;
  3. explaining the role of America's military and veterans in defending freedom during the Cold War;
  4. explaining the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War, including the role of Ronald Reagan.
    VUS.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s by:
  1. identifying the importance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the roles of Thurgood Marshall and Oliver Hill, and how Virginia responded;
  2. describing the importance of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the 1963 March on Washington, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
    VUS.14 The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic, social, cultural, and political developments in the contemporary United States by:
  1. analyzing the effects of increased participation of women in the labor force;
  2. analyzing how changing patterns of immigration affect the diversity of the United States population, the reasons new immigrants choose to come to this country, and their contributions to contemporary America;
  3. explaining the media influence on contemporary American culture and how scientific and technological advances affect the workplace, health care, and education.

Virginia and United States Government

Standards for Virginia and United States Government define the knowledge that enables citizens to participate effectively in civic life. Students examine fundamental constitutional principles, the rights and responsibilities of citizenship, the political culture, the policy-making process at each level of government, and the operation of the United States market economy. The standards identify the personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in the civic life of an increasingly diverse democratic society.

    GOVT.1 The student will demonstrate mastery of the social studies skills citizenship requires, including the ability to:
  1. analyze primary and secondary source documents;
  2. create and interpret maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
  3. analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;
  4. distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;
  5. evaluate information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;
  6. identify a problem and prioritize solutions;
  7. select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.
    GOVT.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political philosophies that shaped the development of Virginia and United States constitutional government by:
  1. describing the development of Athenian democracy and the Roman republic;
  2. explaining the influence of the Magna Carta, the English Petition of Rights, and the English Bill of Rights;
  3. examining the writings of Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu;
  4. explaining the guarantee of the rights of Englishmen set forth in the charters of the Virginia Company of London;
  5. analyzing the natural rights philosophies expressed in the Declaration of Independence.
    GOVT.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the concepts of democracy by:
  1. recognizing the fundamental worth and dignity of the individual;
  2. recognizing the equality of all citizens under the law;
  3. recognizing majority rule and minority rights;
  4. recognizing the necessity of compromise;
  5. recognizing the freedom of the individual.
    GOVT.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the Constitution of the United States by:
  1. examining the ratification debates and The Federalist;
  2. identifying the purposes for government stated in the Preamble;
  3. examining the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the United States is based, including the rule of law, consent of the governed, limited government, separation of powers, and federalism;
  4. illustrating the structure of the national government outlined in Article I, Article II, and Article III;
  5. describing the amendment process.
    GOVT.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the federal system described in the Constitution of the United States by:
  1. explaining the relationship of the state governments to the national government;
  2. describing the extent to which power is shared;
  3. identifying the powers denied state and national governments;
  4. examining the ongoing debate that focuses on the balance of power between state and national governments.
    GOVT.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of local, state, and national elections by:
  1. describing the organization, role, and constituencies of political parties;
  2. describing the nomination and election process;
  3. examining campaign funding and spending;
  4. analyzing the influence of media coverage, campaign advertising, and public opinion polls;
  5. examining the impact of reapportionment and redistricting;
  6. identifying how amendments extend the right to vote;
  7. analyzing voter turnout.
    GOVT.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the national government by:
  1. examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
  2. analyzing the relationship between the three branches in a system of checks and balances.
    GOVT.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the organization and powers of the state and local governments described in the Constitution of Virginia by:
  1. examining the legislative, executive, and judicial branches;
  2. examining the structure and powers of local governments: county, city, and town;
  3. analyzing the relationship among state and local governments.
    GOVT.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the process by which public policy is made by:
  1. examining different perspectives on the role of government;
  2. explaining how local, state, and national governments formulate public policy;
  3. describing the process by which policy is implemented by the bureaucracy at each level;
  4. analyzing how individuals, interest groups, and the media influence public policy.
    GOVT.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the operation of the federal judiciary by:
  1. explaining the jurisdiction of the federal courts;
  2. examining how John Marshall established the Supreme Court as an independent, co-equal branch of government through his opinions in Marbury v. Madison ;
  3. describing how the Supreme Court decides cases;
  4. comparing the philosophies of judicial activism and judicial restraint.
    GOVT.11 The student will demonstrate knowledge of civil liberties and civil rights by:
  1. examining the Bill of Rights, with emphasis on First Amendment freedoms;
  2. analyzing due process of law expressed in the 5th and 14th Amendments;
  3. explaining selective incorporation of the Bill of Rights;
  4. exploring the balance between individual liberties and the public interest;
  5. explaining every citizen's right to be treated equally under the law.
    GOVT.12 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of the United States in a changing world by:
  1. describing the responsibilities of the national government for foreign policy and national security;
  2. assessing the role played by national interest in shaping foreign policy and promoting world peace;
  3. examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy;
  4. examining recent foreign policy and international trade initiatives since 1980.
    GOVT.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how governments in Mexico, Great Britain, and the People's Republic of China compare with government in the United States by:
  1. describing the distribution of governmental power;
  2. explaining the relationship between the legislative and executive branches;
  3. comparing the extent of participation in the political process.
    GOVT.14 The student will demonstrate knowledge of economic systems by:
  1. identifying the basic economic questions encountered by all economic systems;
  2. comparing the characteristics of free market, command, and mixed economies, as described by Adam Smith and Karl Marx;
  3. evaluating the impact of the government's role in the economy on individual economic freedoms;
  4. explaining the relationship between economic freedom and political freedom;
  5. examining productivity and the standard of living as measured by key economic indicators.
    GOVT.15 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the United States market economy by:
  1. assessing the importance of entrepreneurship, the profit motive, and economic independence to the promotion of economic growth;
  2. comparing types of business organizations;
  3. describing the factors of production;
  4. explaining the interaction of supply and demand;
  5. illustrating the circular flow of economic activity;
  6. f) analyzing global economic trends, with emphasis on the impact of technological innovations.
    GOVT.16 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of government in the Virginia and United States economies by:
  1. analyzing the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on the economy;
  2. describing the creation of public goods and services;
  3. examining environmental issues, property rights, contracts, consumer rights, labor-management relations, and competition in the marketplace.
    GOVT.17 The student will demonstrate knowledge of personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by:
  1. practicing trustworthiness and honesty;
  2. practicing courtesy and respect for the rights of others;
  3. practicing responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance;
  4. practicing respect for the law;
  5. practicing patriotism.
    GOVT.18 The student will understand that thoughtful and effective participation in civic life is characterized by:
  1. obeying the law and paying taxes;
  2. serving as a juror;
  3. participating in the political process;
  4. performing public service;
  5. keeping informed about current issues;
  6. respecting differing opinions in a diverse society.

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Fairfax County Program of Studies (POS) Standards

Grade 4 - Social Studies

Standard 1
Acquire historical knowledge and understanding that result from a comprehensive study of American history, world history, and western civilization.

    Benchmark 4.1.1: Students acquire knowledge and understanding of important events and developments in Virginia and Fairfax County and their influence on United States history. Benchmark 4.1.2: Students examine the lasting contributions and achievements of individuals and groups in Virginia history.

Standard 2
Conduct inquiries and research gathering, analyzing, interpreting, and communicating facts associated with themes, movements, and general principles operating in history and civics.

    Benchmark 4.2.1: Students use a variety of resources to gather information about Virginia and Fairfax County.
    Benchmark 4.2.2: Students organize, analyze, and communicate information about Virginia from the past to the present.

Standard 3
Know, understand, and explain the importance of the political and civic beliefs, values and principles that support and maintain American constitutional democracy; and understand the workings of their own and other political systems.

    Benchmark 4.3.1: Students examine the structure of government in Virginia and how it has changed over time.
    Benchmark 4.3.2: Students understand the relationship between Virginia government and United States government.

Standard 4
Identify and understand rights and responsibilities as citizens of the United States.

    Benchmark 4.4.1: Students recognize that citizens have rights and responsibilities in society.

Standard 5
Apply knowledge of history and civics to make decisions and solve problems.

    Benchmark 4.5.1: Students make decisions and solve problems using knowledge of history and democratic processes.

Standard 6
Acquire a comprehensive understanding of the facts, concepts, theories, and terminology of physical and human geography.

    Benchmark 4.6.1: Students describe major geographic features of Virginia and the United States and locate places in absolute and relative terms.
    Benchmark 4.6.2: Students identify the location of groups of people and natural resources in Virginia.

Standard 7
Know, analyze and evaluate social, economic, and environmental effects resulting from natural forces and human activity.

    Benchmark 4.7.1: Students demonstrate an understanding of economic concepts that have influenced Virginia.
    Benchmark 4.7.2: Students understand that geography and the environment have influenced the cultural and economic development of Virginia.

Standard 8
Know and use appropriate tools to acquire, organize, analyze, interpret, and communicate geographic ideas.

    Benchmark 4.8.1: Students use a variety of resources to gather geographic data to interpret and create maps.

Standard 9
Know and examine issues involving people and places from more than one perspective.

    Benchmark 4.9.1: Examine different points of view about issues affecting Virginia throughout history.

Standard 10
Apply geographic knowledge and skills to solve problems and make informed decisions.

    Benchmark 4.10.1: Students apply geographic knowledge and tools in the study of Virginia and everyday life.

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Grade 6 - Social Studies

Standard 1
Students acquire historical knowledge and understanding that result from a comprehensive study of American history, world history, and western civilization.

    Benchmark 6.1.1: Students acquire historical knowledge and understanding of the growth of the United States as a nation, from the Age of Exploration through Reconstruction.
    Benchmark 6.1.2: Students acquire historical knowledge and understanding of the characteristics of ancient West African peoples.
    Benchmark 6.1.3: Students examine contributions and achievements of individuals who had a significant impact of the development of the United States. (USI.1)

Standard 2
Students conduct inquiries and research- gathering, analyzing, interpreting, and communicating facts associated with themes, movements, and general principles operating in history and civics.

    Benchmark 6.2.1: Students conduct research and gather a variety of information for the purpose of analyzing data and making inferences regarding major historical events.
    Benchmark 6.2.2: Students organize, analyze and communicate information about the growth of the United States as a nation.

Standard 3
Students know, understand, and explain the importance of the political and civic beliefs, values and principles that support and maintain American constitutional democracy; and understand the workings of their own and other political systems.

    Benchmark 6.3.1: Students examine the factors contributing to the development of a governing system and discuss the relationship between group needs and individual freedom.
    Benchmark 6.3.2: Students examine the development and structure of the United States Constitution.
    Benchmark 6.3.3: Students recognize and understand patriotic symbols, slogans, and selections from historically significant speeches and documents in American history up to 1877. (USI.1)

Standard 4
Students identify and understand rights and responsibilities as citizens of the United States.

ol class="p">Benchmark 6.4.1: Students understand the importance of social and personal responsibility in an American democratic society.

Standard 5
Students apply knowledge of history and civics to make decisions and solve problems.

    Benchmark 6.5.1: Students analyze the relevance of historical antecedents and their effects on later events.
    Benchmark 6.5.2: Students understand the influence of historic events on contemporary situations and problems.

Standard 6
Students acquire a comprehensive understanding and knowledge of the facts, concepts, theories, and terminology of physical and human geography.

    Benchmark 6.6.1: Students describe and locate places within the United States and the world in absolute and relative terms.
    Benchmark 6.6.2: Students identify the relationship between the location of various groups of humans and exploration, migration, and settlement in North America and Africa, and factors that influenced them.

Standard 7
Students know, analyze, and evaluate social, economic, and environmental effects resulting from both natural forces and human activity.

    Benchmark 6.7.1: Students examine the influence of major geographic features on the cultural development and growth of the United States.
    Benchmark 6.7.2: Students assess how geographical variations (climate, soil, natural resources) helped shape the economy of the United States.

Standard 8
Students know and use appropriate tools to acquire, organize, analyze, interpret, and communicate geographic data.

    Benchmark 6.8.1: Students use a variety of resources to gather and understand information from geographic data.

Standard 9
Students know and examine issues involving people and places from more than one perspective.

    Benchmark 6.9.1: Students analyze different perspectives on significant issues in American history.

Standard 10
Students apply geographic knowledge and skills to solve problems and make informed decisions.

    Benchmark 6.10.1: Students apply geographic knowledge to make informed decisions and solve problems concerning issues in the United States and in their everyday lives.

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Grade 7 - United States History: 1877 to the Present

Students will acquire historical knowledge and understanding that result from a comprehensive study of the history of the United States.

Content Standard 7.1
Students will acquire historical knowledge and understanding that result from a comprehensive study of the history of the United States.

    Benchmark 7.1.1 Students will demonstrate how geography has influenced the history of the United States.
    Benchmark 7.1.2 Students will be able to recognize and describe significant individuals, issues, and events of Reconstruction.
    Benchmark 7.1.3 Students will demonstrate an understanding how the settlement of the West transformed the United States.
    Benchmark 7.1.4 Students will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of industrialization on the United States from the late 1800s into the early 1900s.
    Benchmark 7.1.5 Students will be able to describe the effects of immigration and urbanization on the United States.
    Benchmark 7.1.6 Students will be able to analyze and explain responses to industrialization and urbanization in the United States.
    Benchmark 7.1.7 Students will be able to analyze the emergence of the United States as a world power since the late 1800s.
    Benchmark 7.1.8 Students will be able to identify and analyze significant individuals, issues, and events during the 1920s.
    Benchmark 7.1.9 Students will be able to identify and analyze the political, social, and economic impact of the Great Depression on the United States.
    Benchmark 7.1.10 Students will be able to analyze and explain the major causes, events, personalities, and outcomes of World War II.
    Benchmark 7.1.11 Students will be able to describe and explain United States involvement in world affairs since 1945.
    Benchmark 7.1.12 Students will be able to describe the social, political, and economic changes that transformed the United States since 1945.
    Benchmark 7.1.13 Students will be able to discuss recent developments in contemporary American society.

Procedural Knowledge Standard 7.2
Students will conduct inquires and research to develop historical thinking skills and communicate historical understanding.

    Benchmark 7.2.1 Students will be able to acquire information from a variety of sources. Benchmark 7.2.2 Students will be able to organize information in a variety of forms. Benchmark 7.2.3 Students will be able to analyze information.
    Benchmark 7.2.4 Students will be able to interpret information.
    Benchmark 7.2.5 Students will be able to communicate in a variety of written forms.
    Benchmark 7.2.6 Students will be able to communicate orally.
    Benchmark 7.2.7 Students will be able to communicate using technologies.

Procedural Knowledge Standard 7.3
Students will apply knowledge of history to make decisions and solve problems.

    Benchmark 7.3.1 Students will be able to make and evaluate historical decisions.
    Benchmark 7.3.2 Students will be able to apply historical understanding and historical thinking skills to other areas of knowledge.
    Benchmark 7.3.3 Students will be able to use interpersonal and group skills to promote collaborative decision making and problem solving.

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Grade 11 - United States and Virginia History

    VUS.1: Historical Skills and Thinking
    Benchmark 1.1: The student will gather and organize various data and information.
    Benchmark 1.2: The student will analyze, interpret, and evaluate information and data.
    Benchmark 1.3: The student will communicate information in various format
    Benchmark 1.4: The student will apply knowledge of American history to make decisions and to solve problems.
    VUS.2: Early Interactions
    Benchmark 2.1: The student understands reasons for European exploration and colonization.
    Benchmark 2.2: The student understands the contacts between Native American and European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the pre-colonial period.
    VUS.3: Colonial Beginnings
    Benchmark 3.1: The student understands the characteristics and historical developments of the New England, Middle-Atlantic, and Southern colonies.
    Benchmark 3.2: The student understands the growth of representative government and the evolution of religious freedom in the North American colonies.
    Benchmark 3.3: The student understands social and cultural change in British America.
    Benchmark 3.4: The student understands how slavery influenced European and African life in the colonies.
    VUS.4: Establishing a Nation
    Benchmark 4.1: The student explains the causes of the American Revolution, ideas, and interests involved in forging the Revolutionary movement and the reasons for the American victory.
    Benchmark 4.2: The student will describe the political differences concerning separation from Great Britain.
    Benchmark 4.3: The student identifies key battles, strategic and diplomatic decisions, and leaders of the Revolution.
    VUS.5: Federalist Period
    Benchmark 5.1: The student will evaluate the social, political, economic, and cultural effects of the Revolution.
    Benchmark 5.2: The student analyzes and explains events and legacies of the Constitutional Era.
    Benchmark 5.3: The student understands the guaranties of the Bill of Rights and its continuing significance.
    VUS.6: The Growth of the New Republic
    Benchmark 6.1: The student analyzes the development of the first American political party system.
    Benchmark 6.2: The student analyzes foreign policy developments during the early years of the Republic Era through the mid-19th century.
    Benchmark 6.3: The student analyzes political institutions and practices during the early Republican Era.
    Benchmark 6.4: The student analyzes the impact of growing nationalism on social, political, economic, and cultural developments of the era.
    Benchmark 6.5: The student analyzes and evaluates reform movements as attempts to further opportunities in the new nation.
    Benchmark 6.6: The student analyzes the regional differences and disputes that climaxed in the era of the Civil War.
    VUS.7: Civil War and Reconstruction
    Benchmark 7.1: The student analyzes significant elements of the Civil War including the secession process; advantages and disadvantages of the Union and the Confederates; military strategies; and the role of key individuals.
    Benchmark 7.2: The student analyzes the role of Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War Era.
    Benchmark 7.3: The student analyzes the political and social consequences of Reconstruction on the South and the rest of the Nation.
    VUS.8: The Rise of Modern America
    Benchmark 8.1: The student analyzes the causes and effects of western expansion during the second half of the 19th century.
    Benchmark 8.2: The student analyzes the ways that cultural and economic change redefined American ideals with the turn of the 20th century.
    Benchmark 8.3: The student analyzes the impact of industrialization, urbanization, immigration and available natural resources on economic change with the emergence of modern America.
    Benchmark 8.4: The student analyzes the extent to which the American Dream was maintained or denied during the last part of the 19th century.
    Benchmark 8.5: The student analyzes the impact of industrialization and urbanization on political changes evident domestically and within United States foreign policy at the turn of the 20th century.
    VUS.9: Becoming a World Power
    Benchmark 9.1: The student analyzes the causes and effects of the Unites States' imperialism around the turn of the twentieth century.
    Benchmark 9.2: The student analyzes and examines the significance of World War I.
    Benchmark 9.3: The student analyzes the challenges and achievements of expanding participation in the American Dream and the tensions that existed between the desire for personal liberty and the needs of the community.
    Benchmark 9.4: The student analyzes the effectiveness of national government efforts to deal with domestic challenges and the internal tensions that developed within the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches.
    VUS.10: World War II
    Benchmark 10.1: The student will analyze the rise of totalitarian regimes, global economic instability and the failure of international institutions as underlying causes of the war.
    Benchmark 10.2: Students will analyze the military strategies, major battles and turning points of the United States and its allies during the war.
    Benchmark 10.3: The student will analyze how minority participation in World War II reflected social conditions in the United States and contributed to the Allied victory.
    Benchmark 10.4: The student will analyze the violations of human rights that took place before and during World War II.
    VUS.11: World War II: Domestic Effects
    Benchmark 11: The student will analyze the effect of the war on the home front.
    VUS.12: The Cold War
    Benchmark 12.1: The student analyzes the impact of international affairs on the foreign policy of the United States after World War II.
    Benchmark 12.2: The student analyzes the political impact of the Cold War on domestic affairs.
    Benchmark 12.3: The student traces the rise of the United States as a major economic power in the Post-War Era.
    Benchmark 12.4: The student analyzes and explains domestic and foreign policy measures of the national government during the Post-War Era.
    VUS.13: Civil Rights Era
    Benchmark 13.1: The student describes and evaluates the efforts and accomplishments of individuals and groups, within the public and private sectors, to affect change in Civil Rights.
    VUS.14: The U.S. in Today's World
    Benchmark 14.1: The student analyzes the changing world of women in the last decades of the twentieth century.
    Benchmark 14.2: The student examines the new social, political, and economic issues facing America as it entered the twentieth century.
    Benchmark 14.3: The student evaluates the changing role of the United States within the world community.

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Learning Strategy Objectives

Objective
Strategy
Description

  1. Tell What You Know (Activate Prior Knowledge)
    -Think about and use what I already know to help me do the task.
    -Recall and build on what I have already learned about the topic.
  2. Make Predictions
    -Make logical guesses about what will happen.
    -Anticipate information to come.
    -Use text headings to predict content.
    -Predict choices and consequences.
  3. Make Inferences
    -Use context to make logical guesses about meanings of new word or phrases.
    -Read or listen between the lines to understand implied meaning.
  4. Use Selective Attention
    -Listen or read (scan) for specific information.
    -Focus on key words, phrases, or ideas.
    -Find main ideas and details.
  5. Use Resources
    -Use reference materials and the Internet.
    -Question experts.
    -Use a model.
  6. Summarize
    -Create a mental, oral or written summary of information.
  7. Group/Classify
    -Relate or classify words or ideas according to attributes.
  8. Use/Create Graphic Organizers
    -Use or create a visual representation (such as Venn diagrams, timelines, and charts) or important relationships between ideas.
  9. Take notes
    -Write down important words and ideas.
  10. Cooperate
    -Work with others to complete tasks, build confidence, and give and receive feedback.
  11. Use Imagery
    -Use or create an image to understand and/or represent information.

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Historical Thinking Standards

  1. Chronological Thinking
  2. Distinguish between past, present, and future.
    Identify temporal structure of historical narrative.
    Establish time in constructing own historical narrative.
    Measure and calculate calendar time.
    Interpret data presented in time lines.
    Create time lines.
    Explain change and continuity over time.
  3. Historical Comprehension
  4. Identify the authors or source of historical documents or narratives.
    Reconstruct literal meaning of historical passage.
    Identify central questions of historical narrative.
    Read historical narratives imaginatively.
    Draw upon data in historical maps.
    Use visual and mathematical data in graphs.
    Use visual data from photographs , paintings, cartoons, and architectural drawings.
  5. Historical Analysis & Interpretation
  6. Formulate questions to focus inquiry or analysis.
    Compare and contrast sets of ideas, values, etc.
    Analyze historical fiction.
    Distinguish between stories of historical figures, eras, events.
    Analyze illustrations in historical stories.
    Consider multiple perspectives.
    Explain causes in analyzing historical actions.
    Challenge arguments of historical inevitability.
    Hypothesize about influences of the past.
  7. Historical Research Capabilities
  8. Formulate historical questions.
    Obtain historical data.
    Interrogate historical data.
    Gather needed knowledge of time and place to construct a story, explanation or narrative.
    Historical Issues:
  1. Analysis & Decision Making-Identify problems and dilemmas in the past.
  2. Analyze the interests and values of various people involved.
  3. Identify causes of a problem or dilemma.
  4. Propose alternative choices for a problem.
  5. Formulate a position or course of action.
  6. Identify the solution chosen.
  7. Evaluate the consequences of a decision.
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