Trees of Temperance
Author: Anthony Rettig
School: Baker Middle
Grade Level: 8th
Time Estimated: 3 days (45 minute periods)
Many workers in the late 1700's and early 1800's spent most of their wages on alcohol. Many families were left without enough money to eat or keep a good home. Led by church organizations, Temperance movements began a nationwide campaign to stop the drinking of alcohol. To help advertise their movements they created songs, brochures, and posters. The Temperance movements gained in popularity and political clout. After years of successful lobbying some states succeeded in passing temperance laws. One of the first passed was known as the "Main Law" of 1851. The passage of these laws was not without objection. Those opposed to the passage of temperance laws cited the basic rights and freedoms fought for by their fathers and granted by the constitution protected their right to enjoy a drink . . . or two.
(1) Students will complete a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting societal views of Temperance and Intemperance. (2) Students will write a well constructed paragraph describing the origins, nature, and impact of the Temperance movement in 19th century America.
Unit 8.3: "Geographic and Economic Change Shape the Nation, 1815–1850"
Lesson 4.5: "Social Reformers React to Change"
- Textbook (such as Creating America: A History of the United States, by Jesus Garcia, published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, March 2000.)
- Student Capture Sheet
- Primary Source Packet ("Tree of Intemperance"; "Tree of Temperance"; "Drunkards Progress"; "Advice to Women"; "Effects of Drunkenness"; Liquor Dealers Rights")
- Student Pre-Reading Packet
- "Temperance" Promethean Flipchart
- Goal: Students will understand the difference between temperance and intemperance.
- Activity: Students will read sections from their textbook (Creating America, pp. 417-421) on various reform movements such as revivalism, worker rights, education, caring for the needy, and ideal communities (students will skip the reading on Temperance). This will help establish the context of reform movements.
- Students will then be given the photographs of "The tree of Temperance" and the "Tree of Intemperance" together. Students will be asked to analyze and use "close reading" skills to complete a Venn diagram and write a short paragraph as to what they believe the photos were
used for, what is temperance and intemperance. General questions students will be given to guide their exploration of the primary sources:
- What do you notice or what stands out to you in this picture?
- What message is the picture trying to give?
- What Images or words reinforce this?
- Goal: Students will be able to give a general explanation of the origins and nature of the temperance reform movement, particularly its religious and societal roots. Students will also explain some of the conflicts and impacts the temperance reform movement had on society.
- Activity: Students will view the picture "The Drunkard Progress" to review societal attitudes on temperance and intemperance.
- Students will then be given the primary document samples "Temperance Pledge", "Advice to Women", and "Effects of Intemperance." Using their capture sheet, students will answer questions regarding the source documents such as "Who wrote this, what was their intention, who was their audience."
- After Students examine these sources they will be given a 4th, "The Liquor Dealers Rights." Students will answer the same questions for this source as well as answer "How does this document differ from all the others? What can you infer from this?"
- Rich discussions from day 1 and 2 may cause lesson to carry over to a third day. This is encouraged as it indicates student analysis of the primary documents is active and student interest is high.
Day 1: Write a short paragraph describing the difference between temperance and intemperance.
Day 2: Students will use notes collected on their capture sheet to write a general explanation of the origins and nature of the temperance reform movement, particularly its religious and societal roots. Students will also explain some of the conflicts and impacts the temperance reform movement had on society.
Students with writing accommodations will be allowed to create a bulleted list as opposed to a written paragraph.
Written paragraphs assigned as Homework at end of Day1 and Day2.
- Teach US History. Temperance Reform in the Early 19th Century. Teach US History.org.http://www.teachushistory.org/Temperance/index.htm
- This site has a concise but rich selection of primary documents, lessons and media. I found it useful as a source for some of the pictures and information used in this lesson as well as providing additional background information on other aspects of the topic not covered in this lesson.
- Library of Congress. American Memory.http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html
- This site is an extension of the Library of Congress. Using the search term "Temperance" will yield a large collection of documents, pictures, and musical scores related to the topic. This is the site I discovered the Trees of Temperance and Intemperance.
- Wikipedia. "Temperance movement." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperance_movement
- While information from Wikipedia should be used carefully, I found this site to contain information on temperance movements in other countries during the same period in history. It also contains a large list, with links, of temperance organizations both in and out of the United States.
- "Tree of Temperance." Archibald Macbriar, lithographer. Cincinnati: published by A.D. Fillmore, c. 1855. Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Library of Congress.http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003689278
- "Tree of intemperance." Archibald Macbriar, lithographer. Cincinnati: published by A.D. Fillmore, c. 1855. Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Library of Congress.http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2003689279
- "The drunkards progress. From the first glass to the grave." N. Currier (Firm). New York: Lithographed and published by N. Currier, c. 1846. Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Library of Congress.http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91796265
- "Temperance pledge filled in by James Sweeney 19 Nov. 1841." New York Catholic temperance association. 1841. An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera, Library of Congress.http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc/rbpe.11901100
- "Advice to Young Women and Young Men (1836)." From The Temperance Almanac by the New York State Temperance Society. Edited by the Museum Education Department at Old Sturbridge Village. (Albany, 1836). Temperance Reform in the Early 19th Century, Teach US History.org.http://www.teachushistory.org/Temperance/t-almanac.htm
- "Effects of Drunkenness." From Youth's Temperance Lecture by Charles Jewett (1841). Temperance Reform in the Early 19th Century, Teach US History.org.http://www.teachushistory.org/Temperance/ps-effects.htm
- "Liquor Dealers Rights." E Pluribus Unum: America in the 1770s, 1850s, and 1920s, Dr. John McClymer, Professor of History, Assumption College; Dr Lucia Knoles, Professor of English, Assumption College; and Dr. Arnold Pulda, Director of Gifted and Talented student programs for the public schools in Worcester, MA.http://www1.assumption.edu/ahc/LiquorDealersRights.gif