"The Mode of exterminating the Black Army as practised by the French"

The fighting between the French and the Haitians was very bloody. When the French tried to put down Toussaint in 1802, it took them some five months with an expeditionary force of 23,000. Supplied by locals, the French seized the towns, gradually extending their control to the countryside. Eventually they even captured L’Ouverture but never could quell the uprising.

Source: Marcus Rainsford, An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti (London: Albron Press, 1805), 327.