Website Frequently Asked Questions

Content Issues

Q. How do I cite the essays and other secondary commentary available on the site?

A. Jack Censer and Lynn Hunt are the authors. Credits information is available at . You should follow the style appropriate to your area of research. Exampes for citing online sources are available in the Chicago Manual of Style, but other formats (MLA, APA) may have different criteria for citing online sources.

Below is an example from the Chicago Manual of Style:


Jack Censer and Lynn Hunt, Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity: Exporing the French Revolution,


Censer, Jack and Lynn Hunt. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution.

Q. Where can I find information on the images available on the site?

A. Every attempt has been made to provide as much information as possible about the sources available on the site. Unfortunately, very little information is available for some images. If you require further information than what the site provides, please contact the archive that holds the original image for more information. Below is a list of contact information for the archives:

  • Musée de la Révolutiôn Française (Museum of the French Revolution)
  • B.P. 1753
  • 38220 Vizille, France
  • (Abbreviated as MFR)
  • Cornell University
  • Rare and Manuscript Collections, University Library
  • Carl A. Krock Library
  • Ithaca, NY 14853-5302
  • Library of Congress
  • 101 Independence Ave, SE
  • Washington, DC 20540
  • (Abbreviated as DCL)

Q. Am I allowed to create a link to your site from my own webpage?

A. Yes.

Copyright Issues:

Q. Do you have any guidelines for use of the site's materials in class lectures or public presentations?

A. In our opinion, presenting images and texts from the site in a class lecture or scholarly presentation falls under "educational fair use" and does not require our permission. We would appreciate that you acknowledge our site or our CD-ROM as the source of the material. You would, however, need permission from the individual archives that hold the original images if you plan to use those images in a public website or publication, and you need to contact the appropriate groups who own the right to the songs.

Q. I would like to use images available from your site in an upcoming publication. Who should I contact for publication permissions and copyright information?

A. The Center for History and New Media does not own the copyrights to any of the images or songs available; you should contact the individual archives that possess the images, which are usually indicated below the images.

Q. Who owns the copyrights to the songs on the website?

A. We only have the rights to songs for the purpose of our website and our CD-ROM. The copyrights are owned by the groups that performed and recorded the songs for our use. Those respective groups should be contacted directly regarding rights to the songs. They are as follows:

  • Rights to the songs "O Richard, O mon Roi," "Le Reveil du Peuple," "Ca ira," "La Carmagnole," and "La Marseillaise" are owned by James H. Johnson at the Boston University Department of History, 226 Bay State Road, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 ( )
  • Rights to the songs "Te Deum," "Air de Marseillaise," "Hymne du 21 janvier," "Hymne du IX Thermido," "Hymne pour la Feter des Epoux," "Chant pour la Fête de la Vieillese," "Hymne Funebre," "Chant Patriotique" belong to William Hartwell at the Texas Tech University School of Music , Box 42033, Lubbock TX 79409-2033.

Technical Issues:

Q. I am unable to hear the songs available on the site, and/or my computer does not recognize .rm files. What should I do?

A. First, make sure that you have the latest version of Realplayer, available free at . The songs on the website are realmedia files (.rm). Make sure your that in your browser's preferences that the appropriate application (RealOne or RealPlayer) is selected as the default player for realaudio files.

Once you open, click on the link entitled “Free RealOne Player”. You will be asked to create an account with, then given the a link to download the player.

If you cannot hear the songs after downloading the latest version of Realplayer, please contact us at so we can investigate your problem in more detail.

Q. Are the songs available for download to copy to a CD or other media?

A. The songs are only available through streaming media, and are thus not available for download. If you need a portable copy of the songs, the website is available in a CD-ROM/book format also called "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity" available from Penn State Press. You may also purchase the CD alone. For more information, see