Baker, Alison. In Voices of Resistance: Oral Histories of Moroccan Women. Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

This is an indispensable source for understanding the roles played by women from different social classes in the anticolonial movement in Morocco. The author interviewed a wide array of Moroccan women who participated in various ways in the nationalist struggle.

Charrad, Mounira. States and Women’s Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.

This is a comparative historical and sociological analysis of the current differences in the legal statuses of women in the three former French colonies. The author locates present-day variations in the legal status of women in the pre-colonial and particularly the colonial periods.

Clancy-Smith, Julia. “Colonialism: 18th to Early 20th Century.” In Methodologies, Paradigms and Sources, vol. 1 of Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures. Suad Joseph. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 2003.

This article surveys the impact that European imperialism exerted upon knowledge about Muslim women and Islamic cultures. It focuses upon the two major colonial powers—Great Britain and France—although other European nations are considered for comparative purposes. The essay’s historical parameters run from 1750 until the eve of the Great War.

Clancy-Smith, Julia and Frances Gouda, eds. Domesticating the Empire: Gender, Race, & Family Life in the Dutch and French Empires. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1998.

This multi-author volume has a number of essays devoted to women and gender in the French Empire; three chapters deal specifically with 19th- and 20th-century Algeria.

Lazreg, Marnia. The Eloguence of Silence: Algerian Women in Question. New York: Routledge Press, 1994.

This historical survey analyzes Algerian women’s condition from the precolonial through the postcolonial periods. Lazreg takes to task not only France and French imperialism for the fact that Algerian women lack many basic civil and legal rights even today, but also male nationalist leaders who refused to recognize women’s contributions to the nationalist struggle after independence was won in 1962.