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A selection of additional sources

In addition to the materials available in the CIP Digital Archive, the following resources might be of interest to researchers.


Public documents (government)
Other useful resources: Selected links


Bundy, McGeorge. Danger and Survival: Choices About the Bomb in the First Fifty Years. Random House, New York, 1988. A history of nuclear weapons policy from World War II up to the last days of the Reagan administration. A former advisor to presidents Kennedy and Johnson, Bundy believes that the threat of mutual destruction deterred political leaders on both sides of the "iron curtain" from employing nuclear weapons.

Clarke, Richard A. Against All Enemies: Inside America’s War on Terror. Free Press, 2005. Richard Clarke was appointed by President Bill Clinton as the first national coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection, and Counterterrorism in May 1998, and continued in that position under George W. Bush. Until March 2003, he was a career member of the Senior Executive Service, having begun his federal service in 1973 in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, as an analyst on nuclear weapons and European security issues. In the Reagan administration, Clarke was deputy assistant secretary of state for Intelligence. In the first Bush administration, he was the assistant secretary of state for Politico-Military Affairs.

Conway, Hugh and James E. Toth, The Big “L”: American Logistics in World War II. Alan Gropman, ed. National Defense University Press, Washington, 1997. Found online at

Cordeman, Anthony H., Cyber-Threats, Information Warfare, and Critical Infrastructure Protection: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Praeger Publishers, 2001. Cordesman is Co-Director of the Middle East Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, and a special consultant on military affairs for ABC News. The author of numerous books on international security issues, he has served in senior positions for the secretary of defense, NATO, and the U.S. Senate.

Edwards, Paul. The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1996. An ambitious history of the application of computers to the Cold War arms race, paired with an analysis of the computer as a metaphor for intelligence, perception, and communication in the cognitive sciences.

Hafner, Katie and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: the Origins of the Internet. Simon & Schuster, New York, 1996. Story of the origins of the Internet bolstered by extensive interviews with its creators, the “wizards” beyond its predecessor, the Department of Defense-funded ARPANET.

Hill, Kenneth L., ed. Cold War Chronology: Soviet-American Relations, 1945-1991. Congressional Quarterly, Washington, 1993. Annotated chronology of U.S.-Soviet relations from the close of World War II to the end of the Cold War.

Kaplan, Fred. The Wizards of Armageddon. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1983. Well-documented and highly-readable story of the evolution of the principles of nuclear strategy formulated by the civilian analysts of the RAND Corporation by a defense journalist for the Boston Globe.

May, Ernest R., ed. American Cold War Strategy: Interpreting NSC-68. St. Martin’s, New York, 1993. NSC-68 shaped U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War by advocating an immediate, large-scale build-up of military power in opposition to the Soviet Union.

Verton, Dan. Black Ice: The Invisible Threat of Cyber-Terrorism. McGraw-Hill/Osborne, 2003.

Webster, Bruce F. The Y2K Survival Guide: Getting to, Getting Through, and Getting Past the Year 2000 Problem. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.

Yourdon, Edward. Byte Wars: The Impact of September 11 on Information Technology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.


Thomas Homer-Dixon, “The Rise of Complex Terrorism.” Foreign Policy (15 January 2002) Online at

David Greenberg, “Fallout Can Be Fun: How the Cold War Civil-Defense Programs Became Farce,” Slate (20 February 2003) Online at

Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Lynch, Jon Postel, Larry G. Roberts, Stephen Wolff. “A Brief History of the Internet.” Online at

Richard G. Little, "Controlling Cascading Failure: Understanding the Vulnerabilities of Interconnected Infrastructures," Journal of Urban Technology, 9:1 (2002) 109 -123.

Richard G. Little, "Educating the Infrastructure Professional: A New Curriculum for a New Discipline," Public Works Management & Policy, 4:2 (October 1999) 93 - 99.

Eric Pianin, Marc Kaufman, Lucy Shackelford, et al., "How Experts Grade Homeland Security," The Washington Post, September 10, 2002, pp. A20 - A21.

Michael J. Terry, “Mobilizing the Deteriorating Defense Industrial Base,” 1990. Found online at


Boyce Wayne Blanchard, American Civil Defense 1945-1975: the Evolution of Programs and Policies, diss., University of Virginia, 1980.

Michael J. McCarthy, “Lafayette, We Are Here”: The War College Division and American Military Planning for the AEF in World War I, M.A. thesis (Marshall University, May 1992) Found online at


LTC Bill Flynt, "Capabilities Required to Perceive Cyber Attacks Against Distributed Complex Systems", Paper presented at InfowarCon 2002, Washington, DC, September 5, 2002.

Jeffrey R. Gaynor, "Critical Infrastructure Protection/Assurance," A 21st Century National and Homeland Security Imperative, Presentation to: Computer Security and Information Assurance V: Best Practices and Lessons Learned Conference, Potomac Forum, Ltd., Washington, D.C., January 23, 2002.

Joel N. Gordes, "Cyberthreats and Grid Vulnerability," Paper presented at InfowarCon 2002, Washington, DC, September 5, 2002.

Richard G. Little, "Understanding and Controlling Cascading Failure: A Systems Approach to Multi-Hazard Mitigation." Presented at the 9th Annual Conference of the International Emergency Management Society Facing the Realities of the Third Millennium, May 14 - 17, 2002, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Richard G. Little, "The Role of Organizational Culture and Values in the Performance of Critical Infrastructure Systems" 10/11/2004.

See also the two-volume set of working papers produced by the Critical Infrastructure Protection Program (CIPP), George Mason University. Workshop I Working Papers (2003) and Workshop II Working Papers (2004). John A. McCarthy, Director and Principal Investigator. Available in hard copy only at selected libraries.

PUBLIC DOCUMENTS (e.g government reports)

Note: Check the CIP Digital Archive on this website first for the report you’re seeking. This brief list contains selected additional items that can be found at federal repository libraries.

Government Accounting Office, Critical Infrastructure Protection: National Plan for Information Systems Protection. Microfiche. 2000. United States. GAO/AIMD-00-90 R.

National Research Council, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, Protecting People and Buildings from Terrorism: Technology Transfer for Blast-effects Mitigation, National Academy of Sciences Press, 2001.

REPORTS (non-governmental in origin)

Note: Check the CIP Digital Archive on this website first for the report you’re seeking. This brief list contains selected additional items that may be found at major libraries or by contacting the organizing responsible for publication.

Silent Vector Roundtable: Issues of Concern and Policy Recommendations. Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), Georgetown University, Washington, 2003. Results of a simulated attack on four infrastructure sectors in October 2002.

Claire B. Rubin, William R. Cumming, Irmak Renda-Tanali, and Thomas Birkland. Major Terrorism Events and Their Outcomes (1988-2001). Rubin, Arlington, Virginia, June 2003. See also

James R. Woolsey and Robert H. Kupperman. America’s Hidden Vulnerabilities: Crisis Management in a Society of Networks. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, October 1984.

TESTIMONY (Congressional, other official forums)

Note: Check the CIP Digital Archive on this website first for the testimony or hearing record you’re seeking. This brief list contains selected additional items that may be found at federal repository libraries.

“The Nation at Risk,” report of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP), presented at a hearing before the Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism and Government Information of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate. November 5, 1997. Closed hearing. Witnesses: General Robert T. Marsh Chairman, President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection, and John J. Hamre, Deputy Secretary of Defense.

“Critical Infrastructure Protection: Toward a New Policy Directive,” hearings before the Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate. March 17 and June 10, 1998.

“The ILOVEYOU Virus and Its Impact on the U.S. Financial Services Industry,” hearing before the Subcommittee on Financial Institutions of the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate. May 18, 2000.

Charles Lane, untitled draft, Committee Report, presented to Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. February 9, 1989.


Libraries and Archives (links)

NI2 Center for Critical Infrastructure Expertise, Critical Infrastructure Library (University of New Hampshire):
Sponsored by the National Infrastructure Institute (NI2) Center for Infrastructure Expertise, in partnership with the University of New Hampshire and funded by a grant from the National Institute for Standards and Technology, is designed to serve as a ready reference for those professionals and scholars interested in the protection of America's critical "built" infrastructure and key assets.

Federation of American Scientists:
FAS’s Project on Government Secrecy works to promote public access to government information. The FAS CRS collection specifically focuses on national security, intelligence, foreign policy and homeland security and includes more than 600 CRS reports. Use the website’s Search mechanism to look for other collections of key public documents. From the FAS website: “The Federation of American Scientists is a nonprofit, tax-exempt, 501c3 organization founded in 1945 as the Federation of Atomic Scientists. Our founders were members of the Manhattan Project, creators of the atom bomb and deeply concerned about the implications of its use for the future of humankind. FAS is the oldest organization dedicated to ending the worldwide arms race and avoiding the use of nuclear weapons for any purpose.

Library of Congress:
(main catalog)

September 11, 2001, Documentary Project (Library of Congress):
“The September 11, 2001, Documentary Project captures the heartfelt reactions, eyewitness accounts, and diverse opinions of Americans and others in the months that followed the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and United Airlines Flight 93. Patriotism and unity mixed with sadness, anger, and insecurity are common themes expressed in this online presentation of almost 200 audio and video interviews, 45 graphic items, and 21 written narratives. The day after the attacks, the American Folklife Center called upon the nation’s folklorists and ethnographers to collect, record, and document America’s reaction. A sampling of the material collected through this effort was used to create the September 11, 2001, Documentary Project. This collection captures the voices of a diverse ethnic, socioeconomic, and political cross-section of America during trying times and serves as a historical and cultural resource for future generations.”

After the Day of Infamy: “Man on the Street Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor” (Library of Congress):
“After the Day of Infamy: "Man-on-the-Street" Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor” presents approximately twelve hours of opinions recorded in the days and months following the bombing of Pearl Harbor from more than two hundred individuals in cities and towns across the United States. On December 8, 1941 (the day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor), Alan Lomax, then "assistant in charge" of the Archive of American Folk Song (now the Archive of Folk Culture, American Folklife Center), sent a telegram to fieldworkers in ten different localities across the United States, asking them to collect "man-on-the-street" reactions of ordinary Americans to the bombing of Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war by the United States. A second series of interviews, called "Dear Mr. President," was recorded in January and February 1942. Both collections are included in this presentation. They feature a wide diversity of opinion concerning the war and other social and political issues of the day, such as racial prejudice and labor disputes. The result is a portrait of everyday life in America as the United States entered World War II.”

National Archives:
U.S. National Archive and Records Administration (NARA). Official repository for records and documents generated by the U.S. government.

National Defense University (NDU):
“The National Defense University (NDU) Library collects, organizes, preserves and disseminates classified and unclassified information resources in support of NDU's military education mission. The Library serves as a definitive source in the subject areas of defense management, national security policy, military strategy, mobilization and civilian-military affairs.” The library’s digital collections include a rich compilation of student papers and visitors’ lectures from the mid-1920s forward.

National Security Archive (George Washington University):
The National Security Archive is an independent non-governmental research institute and library located at The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The Archive collects and publishes declassified documents acquired through the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). A tax-exempt public charity, the Archive receives no U.S. government funding; its budget is supported by publication royalties and donations. Collections include “The Atomic Bomb and World War II: A Collection of Primary Sources”; “The September 11th Sourcebooks”; and “The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962”. Many other documents related to critical infrastructure protection and national security.

Oklahoma Dept. of Libraries:
Bibliography on website contains more than 700 pages listing “Government Documents Related to the Threat of Terrorism and the Attacks of September 11, 2001.” According to the website, “this bibliography is intended to serve as a means of access to the copious and wide-ranging gamut of information produced by the United States Government concerning the complex web of relations enmeshing the United States, the Greater Middle East (the Middle East, north and east Africa, and central Asia) and the terrorist threat to U.S. persons and interests that has emerged from that region in recent decades.” Covers past, as well as current, events. Check website for periodic updates.

Southern Methodist University, Historic Government Publications from World War II:
Collection of approximately 300 primary source items and documents from the World War II era, published or produced by wartime agencies of the federal government. Many items relate to civil defense and home front preparedness.

Government (links)

Centers for Disease Control & Prevention’s Bioterrorism Preparedness & Response Program (CDC):
Federal agency responsible for ensuring the rapid development of federal, state and local capacity to address potential bioterrorism events. In August 2005, a video titled “The History of Bioterrorism” was available for viewing on the website, or for purchase.

CERT Coordination Center:
Federally-funded program based at Carnegie-Mellon University.

Congressional Research Service (CRS):
An alternate website created and maintained by the Center for Democracy & Technology through the cooperation of several organizations and collectors of Congressional Research Service reports. OpenCRS provides citizens access to CRS Reports already in the public domain and encourages Congress to provide public access to all CRS Reports. Frequently updated.

Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office (CIAO):
Originally housed in the Department of Commerce (1998-2001), the operations of the CIAO were folded into the Department of Homeland Security. Links to CIAO an independent entity have been taken down, including all links to the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCIP). Key CIAO and PCCIP documents can be found in the CIP Digital Archive on this website.

Department of Defense (DOD):
Main website for the Department of Defense.

Department of Homeland Security (DHS):
Note that in 2004, the Department hired a full-time historian. Critical infrastruction protection responsibilities fall principally in DHS’s Information Assurance and Infrastructure Protection directorate.

Federal Incident Response Capability:
The Federal Computer Incident Response Capability (FedCIRC) is dedicated to advancing a strong and reliable critical information infrastructure for the Federal Government.

Government Accounting Office (now called the Government Accountability Office):
Under the Reports and Testimony link, visitors can search for documents in .pdf form as far back the late 1960s on a wide array of topics.

Government Printing Office (GPO):
(See especially the A-Z Resources section, including inventories of government reports from approximately 1994 forward, and Congressional hearings from approximately 1997 forward. A selection has been included here in the CIP Digital Archive.

InfraGard (FBI):
A network designed to alert businesses about security threats to their information systems.

Library of Congress (LOC):
Main LOC catalog: See Libraries and Archives, above.

National Archives (NARA):
See Libraries and Archives, above.

National Academies:
(Includes the National Research Council, National Academy of Science, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine) The National Academies Press publishes reports and books.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST):
Founded in 1901, NIST is a non-regulatory federal agency within the U.S. Commerce Department's Technology Administration. NIST's mission is to develop and promote measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. NIST carries out its mission in four cooperative programs.

National Security Agency (NSA):
Of limited value as a resource for researchers into the NSA’s operations and history. Visit the National Security Archive at George Washington University (see Libraries and Archives, above).

National Security Council (NSC):
A brief history of the National Security Council can be found at the above link. The NSC site can also be accessed by visiting the White House website, A collection of declassified NSC documents can be found at the National Security Archive housed at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. (

Office of Critical Infrastructure Protection and Emergency Preparedness (OCIPEP) - Canadian Department of National Defense:
The mission of OCIPEP, a civilian organization operating within the Department of National Defence, is to "enhance the safety and security of Canadians in their physical and cyber environments." OCIPEP is mandated to "provide national leadership of a new, modern and comprehensive approach to protecting Canada's critical infrastructure -- the key physical and cyber components of the energy and utilities, communications, services, transportation, safety and government sectors; and to be the government's primary agency for ensuring national civil emergency preparedness -- for all types of emergencies."

Think Tanks and Policy Analysts (links)

The Brookings Institution:
Some publicly available Brookings material can be found in the CIP Digital Archive. One of Washington's oldest think tanks. An independent, nonpartisan organization devoted to research, analysis, and public education with an emphasis on economics, foreign policy, governance, and metropolitan policy. More than 140 resident and nonresident scholars research issues; write books, papers, articles, and opinion pieces; testify before congressional committees; and participate in dozens of public events each year. Over 200 research assistants and support staff contribute to the Institution's research, publishing, event management, media relations, fundraising, and information technology operations.

Center for Strategic & International Studies (Georgetown University):
Some publicly-available CSIS materials can be found in the CIP Digital Archive. CSIS focuses on primarily on three areas: national and international security; maintaining resident experts on all of the world's major geographical regions; and new methods of governance for the global age. Books, reports, white papers, conferences.

Claire B. Rubin & Associates: or
Rubin and her team have assembled detailed timelines and supporting material related to disasters and terrorism. Projects include the Terrorism Time Line: Major Focusing Events and U.S. Outcomes (1993-2004) and a revised version of the Disaster Time Line: Major Disasters and Their Effects on the U.S. (1969-2004).

Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC):
EPIC is a public interest research center in Washington, D.C., established in 1994 to focus public attention on emerging civil liberties issues and to protect privacy, the First Amendment, and constitutional values. EPIC publishes an email and online newsletter on civil liberties in the information age: EPIC Alert. Also, reports and books on privacy, open government, free speech and other topics related to civil liberties.

Heritage Foundation:
From the website: “Founded in 1973, The Heritage Foundation is a research and educational institute - a think tank - whose mission is to formulate and promote conservative public policies based on the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.” White papers, books, conferences, scholars-in-residence.

Markle Foundation:
One of the Foundation’s main programs is the The Markle Task Force on National Security in the Information Age. Formed in April 2002, the Task Force, comprised of a diverse and bipartisan group of experienced policymakers, senior executives from the information technology industry, public interest advocates, and experts in privacy, intelligence, and national security, is designed to inform the policy judgments and investments of the federal, state and local governments in the collection and use of information as it relates to national security.The Task Force has released two reports, Protecting America's Freedom in the Information Age in 2002 and Creating a Trusted Information Network for Homeland Security in 2003, both of which can be found in the CIP Digital Archive.

National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (Oklahoma City):
Located in Oklahoma City, site of the Murrah Federal Building bombing in April 1995. MIPT “is dedicated to preventing terrorism or mitigating its effects.” Maintains a library and “lessons learned” section on its website.

RAND Corporation:
The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution devoted to research and analysis of current policy questions. Established in 1948, RAND regularly prepares federally-contracted studies, particularly on defense and national security issues.

Periodicals (links)

CIO Magazine (Chief Information Officer): Articles, white papers, research reports.

CIP Report (Critical Infrastructure Protection Project, George Mason University):
(Early issues are available in the CIP Digital Archive on this website)

Homeland Defense Journal:

Journal of Homeland Security:

Associations and industry-oriented organizations

American Petroleum Institute:

Edison Electric Institute:

National Governors Association:

National League of Cities:

Oil and Gas Association:

Academe (links)

Dartmouth College, Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P):
The Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (The I3P) is a Consortium that includes academic institutions, federally-funded labs and non-profit organizations. With a nationwide membership that continues to grow, the I3P brings experts together to identify and help mitigate threats aimed at the U.S. information infrastructure.

Dartmouth College, Institute for Security Technology Studies (ISTS):
ISTS is a member of the Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (I3P), which is a nationwide consortium of leading cyber security research and development organizations including universities, federally funding labs and non-profit organizations. The goals of the I3P ( are to address research and policy-related aspects of the vulnerabilities inherent in the information infrastructure, bring experts together to identify and mitigate threats aimed at the U.S. information infrastructure, and promote collaboration and information sharing among academia, industry and government.

George Mason University Critical Infrastructure Protection Project (CIPP):
“The Critical Infrastructure Protection Program seeks to fully integrate the disciplines of law, policy, and technology for enhancing the security of cyber-networks, physical systems and economic processes supporting the nation's critical infrastructures. The CIP Program received initial funding in 2002 from The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As the project expanded, on-going activities were leveraged to generate new funding that expanded the project scope to address unexplored areas of critical infrastructure protection. By 2004, the project had evolved into a family of projects under the overall umbrella of the CIP Program. The CIP Program, a joint effort of George Mason University School of Law and James Madison University, is under the leadership of the Director and Principal Investigator, John A. McCarthy.”

GMU Critical Infrastructure Protection Digital Archive (CIP Digital Archive):
Found on this website.

George Washington University
(See National Security Archive under Libraries and Archives, above.)

National Defense University (includes an extensive digital library):
(See Libraries and Archives, above.)

Southern Methodist University
(See Libraries and Archives, above)

University of New Hampshire
(See Libraries and Archives, above)