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"General Remarks on Types of Mankind"

Types of Mankind: or, Ethnological Researches, Based Upon the Ancient Monuments, Paintings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, and Upon Their Natural, Geographical, Philological, and Biblical History (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1854), Chapter II

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WE propose to treat of Mankind, both zoologically and historically ; and, in order that we may be clearly understood, it is expedient that we should define certain terms which will enter into frequent use as we proceed.

TYPE.—The definition of H. Cassini, given in Jourdatt's Dictionaire des Terms, is adopted by us, as sufficiently precise:-

"Typical characters are those which belong only to the majority of natural bodies comprised in any group, or to those which occupy the centre of this group, and in some sort serve as the type of it, but presenting exceptions when it approaches its extremities, on account of the relations sad natural affinities which do not admit well-defined limits between species."

In speaking of Mankind, we regard as Types those primitive or original forms which are independent of Climatic or other Physical influences. All men are more or less influenced by external causes, but these can never act with sufficient force to transform one type into another.

SPECIES.—The following definition, by Prichard, may be received as one of the most lucid and complete:-

-*The meaning attached to the term species, in natural history, is very definite and Intel-ligible. It included only the following conditions: namely, separate origin and left wad by a constant transmission of some characteristic peculiarity of organisation of animals or of plants marked by any peculiar character which it has constantly displayed is termed a 'species'; and two races are considered specifically different, if they are distinguished from each other by some characteristic which the one cannot be supposed or the other to have lost, through say known operation of physical causes.: we are hence led to conclude, that tribes thus distinguished have not descended from the same original stock

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