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"General Remarks on Types of Mankind"

Types of Mankind: or, Ethnological Researches, Based Upon the Ancient Monuments, Paintings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, and Upon Their Natural, Geographical, Philological, and Biblical History (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1854), Chapter II

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actors, are found in certain zoological provinces where everything conveys the idea of distict centres of creation; and hence, we may conclude that mankind only constitutes a link in Nature's great chain.

But many of our readers will doubtless be startled at being told that Ethnology was no new science even before the time of Moses. It is clear, and positive, that at that early day (fourteen or fifteen centuries B.C.), the Egyptians not only recognized, and faithfully represented on their monuments, many distinct races, that that they possessed their own ethnographic systems, and already had classified humanity, as known to them, accordingly. They divided mankind into few species: viz., the Red. Black. White, and Yellow; and, what is note-worthy, the same perplexing diversity existed in each of their quadripartite divisions which still pervades our modern classifications. Our divisions, such as the Caucasian, Mongol, Negro. &c.. each include many sub-types; and if different painters of the prennt day were called upon to select a pictorial type to represent a man of these arbitrary divisions, they would doubtless select different human heads. Thus with the Egyptians: although the Red, or Egyptian, type was represented with considerable uniformity, the White, Yellow, and Black, are often depicted, in their hieroglyphed drawings, with different physiognomies; thus proving, that the same endless variety of races existed at that ancient day that we observe iu the same localities at the present hour. So far from there being a stronger similarity among the most ancient races, the dissimilarity actually augments as we ascend the stream of time; and this is naturally explained by the obvious fact that existing remains of primitive types are becoming more and more amalgamated every day.

There are several similar tableaux on the monuments; but we shall select the celebrated scene from the tomb of SETI-MENEPHTHA I. (generally called "Belzoni's Tomb," at Thebes], of the XIXth dynasty, about the year 1500 s. c., wherein the god Horus conducts sixteen personages, each four of whom represent a distinct type of the human race as known to the Egyptians ; and it will be seen that Egyptian ethnographers, like the writers of the Old and New Testaments, have described and classified solely those races dwelling within the geographical limits known to them. We cannot now say exactly how far the maximum geographical boundaries of the ancient Egyptians extended; for their language, the names of places and names of races is Asia and Africa, have so changed with time that a margin must be left to conjecture: although much of our knowledge is positive, because the minimum extent of antique Egyptian geography 1s determined.

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