24 ADAMITES AND PREADAMITES.
edible roots are the mandioca and the potato; and the feeble llama and vicuna are the only native animals capable of domestication as beasts of burden. Yet the civilization of the Nahuatl nations of Mexico, the Quiches of Central America, the Mayas of Yucatan and the Aymaras and Quichuas of Peru, had become, both in respect to intellectual and industrial advances, and judicial, moral and religious conceptions, almost a stage of true enlightenment. The glaring fact of Negro inferiority in respect to social conditions cannot be explained by any appeal to adverse conditions. Such are the ethnological facts and the co-ordinated circumstances. But in proof of my position I make another point. 5. The anatomical structure of the Negro is inferior. The lean shanks, the prognathous profile, the long arms (which do not always exist) the black skin, the elongated and oblique pelvis—these are all characteristics in which, so far as the Negro diverges from the White man, he approximates the African apes, The skull also is inferior in structure and in capacity, and in the relative expansion of its different regions. Among Whites, the relative abundance of " cross-heads " (having permanently unclosed the longitudinal and transverse suture on the top of the head) is one in seven ; among Mongolians, it is one in thirteen ; among Negroes it is one in fifty-two. This peculiarity is supposed by some to favor the prolonged development of the brain. In any event, it is most frequent in the highest races. Again, the prevailing form of the Negro head is dolichocephalous ; that of civilized races is mesocephalous and brachycephalous. That is, it lacks the breadth which we find associated with executive ability. The broadest Negro skull does not reach the average of the Germans nor does the best Australian skull, let me add, reach the average of the Negro. Finally, the capacity of the Negro cranium is inferior. Assuming 100 as the average capacity of the Australian skull, that of the Negro is 111.6 and that of the Teuton 124 Now, no fact is better established than the general relation of intellect to weight of brain. Welker has shown that the brains of 26 men of high intellectual rank surpassed the average weight by 14 per cent. Of course, quality of brain is an equally important factor; and hence not a few men with brains even below the average have distinguished themselves for scholarship.