RETROSPECT OF PRIMEVAL MAN IN EUROPE. 31
illustrating the physical, intellectual, social, moral and religious status of the earliest inhabitants of Europe; and the developments of investigation in Asia, as far as pursued, are entirely in accord. Indeed, it may be said that the prehistoric antiquities of America present so many resemblances that archaeology con-firms the verdict of ethnology, which assigns the aborigines of America to a Mongolian origin in Asia.
The chief sources of information respecting prehistoric man in Europe are, in addition to the traditions preserved in ancient history, the remains of man found in caverns, river drifts, alluvial deposits, volcanic tuff, peat bogs, kitchen middens, tumuli and megaliths, and, finally, the ancient lake dwellings.
Whether primitive men dwelt to any extent in houses of their own construction, it appears, both from history and archeology, that caverns everywhere have served as human shelters. Nor do they seem to have been temporary refuges; for immense quantities of human remains frequently occur in them, imbedded in successive layers of earth, broken stones and stalagmitic material, to the depth of ten or twenty feet. These remains consist chiefly of stone and bone implements. Sometimes ashes and cinders remain; and in front of the celebrated rock shelter of Aurignac are the relics of an ancient stone hearth, on which was cooked the food which probably served as a funeral repast ; for within the cave, which had been closed by a large stone, were uncovered the remains of seventeen human beings. It is seldom that the bones of men occur in the caverns, but the bones of the cave-bear, hyena and lion, as also those of the reindeer, ox, mammoth, rhinoceros and other animals, are often abundant. No metal seems to have been known to the cave-dwellers.
Other human relics, as ancient as the earliest occupation of the caverns, are found imbedded in the gravel and sand which line certain river valleys in France and England. These deposits were at first supposed to be Glacial or even Tertiary in age ; but it is now admitted that they were formed by the rivers which occupy the valleys, at a time when they flowed at levels thirty to fifty feet higher than at present. It is a doctrine of geology that this stage of the rivers existed at the time when the continental glaciers were melting. The human relics obtained from these