RETROSPECT OP PRIMEVAL MAN IN EUROPE. 33
Druids ; but we now know that they were as mysterious to the Druids, two thousand years ago, as to ourselves. Sometimes the dolmen is covered by a mound of earth. That these were burial places is proved by the occurrence of skeletons in some of them. In certain tumulus-dolmens, the crypt inclosed by the stones is divided into several compartments, each enclosing a skeleton. The associated implements are mostly of stone.
The lake dwellings were cabins erected on piles in the lakes of Switzerland and other European countries. Relics of everything connected with the life of the lake-dwellers were, as a matter of course, accumulated in the bottom of the lake around them. In recent times, these have been discovered and dredged up. They consist of such remains as have already been enumerated, with the addition of articles of bronze. They, hence, belonged to a later age. In certain lakes artificial islands were formed of stones and timbers, on which huts were built. In Ireland these are called " crannoges," and are now deeply covered with turf.
The interpretation of these human relics is, of course, greatly helped by the study of modern savages, and the accounts of ancient history. The flint arrow-heads of the American Indian, for instance, are fashioned precisely like some of those found in European caverns and lake-habitations. To understand the ancient lake-dwellings, recall the account by Herodotus of an ancient tribe dwelling in Paeonia, now a part of Roumelia, who erected cabins on piles; and also the narrative by D'Urville of the lake-dwellers of New Guinea. As illustrations of the kitchen-middens, we may turn to the shell-heaps on the north-west coast of Australia, and the city border offal heaps of Guayaquil and
Mexico. In India some of the tribes still erect cromlechs. Early historic times also reflect a light on the pre-historic ages. " Jacob took a stone and set it up for a pillar," (Gen. xxxi, 45 see, further; ver. 46-52,) and at Mount Sinai Moses erected twelve pillars—menhirs, (Exod. xxiv, 4; Josh. iv, 21-22.) In connection with tumuli, it may be remembered that Semiramis raised a mound over her husband ; stones were piled up over the remains of Laicus ; Achilles raised to Patroclus a mound more than too feet in diamter; Alexander erected one over the ashes of Hephaestio which cost $1,200,000; and in Roman history we meet with similar