RETROSPECT OF PRIMEVAL MAN IN EUROPE. 35
still survived ; and now man appeared in Europe to dispute with them the possession of the forests and caverns. Now the swollen rivers flowed many feet above their present levels, and the relics of the Stone Folk were mingled with the deposits along their borders. The Reindeer Epoch witnessed another elevation and a new invasion of cold. England was again joined to the continent. The cave-bear and mammoth dwindled away. The reindeer and other northern quadrupeds were driven south over the plains of Languedoc and through the valleys of Perigord. The hyena went over to England and took possession of the caverns. But the men of Europe had made a slight advance in the industries. Next, another subsidence resulted in the isolation of England and the Scandinavian peninsula; the climate was again ameliorated, and the reindeer and other Arctic species retreated to Alpine elevations and northern latitudes. Now the modern aspects of the land began to appear, and now appeared various species of mammals destined to domestication—or, more probably, already domesticated in their oriental home. The ages of bronze, iron and authentic history succeeded.
It would, of course, be interesting to trace the physical, intellectual and moral characteristics of these primitive people in the light of the facts whose sources I have pointed out; but a brief article does not furnish the opportunity. A few words must suffice. Physically these people were of rather short stature, with roundish heads, and of a Mongoloid type, like modern Finns and Lapps. In the Neolithic epoch, they were not decidedly divergent from the Mediterranean race, while some of the skulls were equal in capacity to those of the very highest modern families. The Neanderthal skull, famous for its low forehead and massive brows, has a capacity of seventy-five cubic inches; and the Cro-Magnon skull a capacity of ninety-seven cubic inches Socially and intellectually, Palaeolithic man existed in the rudest condition, ignorant even of the use of fire. In the Reindeer Epoch, he produced a better style of pottery, and was acquainted with fire. In the Neolithic Epoch cereals were cultivated and ground into flour; cloth was woven; bone combs were used; stores of fruit were preserved for winter's use; garden-tools were fashioned from stags' horns; log canoes were employed in navigation, and many other