PATRIARCHAL CHRONOLOGY. 47
revelation of God's mind; if it falls, all our trepidation over the supposed consequences becomes ridiculous.
At the meeting of the German Association for the Advancement of Science, last summer at Munich, Professor Haeckel, of Bonn, delivered a lecture in which he indulged in some of his characteristic sneering at spiritualism, and clinched his positions with the customary self-asserting dogmatism. To this lecture fitting reference was made by Professor Virchow, of Berlin, an older, more candid and abler investigator in the same field ; and I close by a citation from Virchow's address.
" All attempts to transform our problems into doctrines, to introduce our theories as the bases of a plan of education, [as Haeckel had proposed,] particularly the attempt simply to depose the Church, and to replace its dogma by a religion of descent, these attempts, I say, must fail. Therefore, let us be moderate; let us exercise resignation, so that we give even the most treasured problems which we put forth, always as problems only, and that we say it a hundred and again a hundred times: Do not take this for confirmed truth—be prepared that, perhaps, this may be changed .... Only ten years ago, when a skull was found, perhaps in peat, or in lake dwellings, or in some old cave, it was believed that marks of a wild and quite undeveloped state were seen in it. Indeed, we were then scenting monkey-air; but this has died out more and more . . . . But I must say that one fossil monkey skull or man ape skull which really belonged to a human proprietor has never been found. We cannot teach, we cannot designate it as a revelation of science, that man descends from the ape, or from any other animal."
In assuming the position that the Black races are Preadamites I have depended chiefly on the two following propositions: 1. The time from Adam (according to accepted chronology) to the date at which we know the Negro type had been fully established is vastly too brief for so great a divergence, in view of the imperceptible amount of divergence since such date. 2. No amount of