PATRIARCHAL CHRONOLOGY. 49
date, as it is in the eleventh chapter. But note the progress which had been made in the settlement of the world and the building of cities, at the date of this composition. The posterity of Japhet had moved westward and taken possession of the islands of the .AEgean and the Mediterranean, and probably the adjacent continental regions, and had spread over the vast territory of Scythia on the north, and penetrated to Spain on the west. They had become separated into distinct "languages, families and nations." This is a glimpse of ethnic events which we cannot reasonably assume to have taken place in 131 years. Again, the descendants of Ham had accomplished even greater results.
Egypt had been settled, and its population had become differentiated into at least eight tribes or nations. Phoenician Sidon had been built and the Phoenicians had grown into nine peoples, "and afterward the families of the Canaanites spread abroad." But before the Canaanites there were present in Palestine the Rephaim, Zuzim, Emim and others. Who were these peoples? Nimrod, also, or his posterity, had planted cities. Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh were the " beginning of his kingdom." Then Asshur arose amongst the Nimrodites and led away a colony, which built other walled cities—Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen which was "a great city." Thus the descendants of Ham had developed " families and tongues and countries and nations." The posterity of Shem also had become divided into." families and tongues and nations" and dispersed to many " lands." Accordingly the descendants of Noah, in the days of Peleg, had become numerous "nations" and divided the earth amongst themselves. Now it is difficult to believe that these cities and nationalities had come into existence from one family in the space of 131 years.
A similar set of considerations is furnished by the eleventh chapter, which seems to be a distinct document, and begins back at an epoch near the flood, and preserves the history down to Abraham. Journeying westward, the Adamites, as yet one family, attempted to build a tower, and were defeated. Still, it appears a city known as Babel rose into existence, and it would be fair to presume that this and the other cities named as the beginning of Nimrod's kingdom, instead of being built by him or his success-ors, were already in existence long before the time of Nimrod.