Museum Collections:


Nineteenth-Century Images:

Egyptian Mirage:  A database of nineteenth-century studio photographs of Egypt from the collection of the Griffith Institute, Oxford University, Oxford, England

Nile Boat: Images originally made by British traveler William Henry Bartlett during his trip down the Nile in the 1840s. These images were originally published in his book The Nile Boat; or, Glimpses of the Land of Egypt (London, 1849)

Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid: Images originally made by Scottish astronomer and eccentric mystic Charles Piazzi Smyth and published in Smyth's 1877 book Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid

Breasted in Egypt and the Sudan:  Over one thousand photographs taken in Egypt, Nubia, and the Sudan between 1905 and 1907 by the most famous of early American Egyptologists, James Henry Breasted, and his team of academic assistants

Stereocards: A private collection of many stereocards of ancient Egyptian sites, ca. 1896 (click on "Stereocards 1896)


Educational Sites:

Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago

Abzu, a bibliographic archive housed at the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago; there are literally thousands of records available through Abzu, from multiple scholarly subfields and in multiple languages

Northern California chapter of the American Research Center In Egypt (ARCE), a private non-profit group (and not an academic program) based in Berkeley, California

The Foundation for Biblical Archaeology

Virtual Kahun


Nineteenth-Century American Architecture of the Egyptian Revival:

New York Halls of Justice



Cleopatra on the Web

Edmonia Lewis, African American sculptor of The Death of Cleopatra, 1876

Gavin's Cleopatra Page


The Black Athena Controversy:  

In 1996, a furor of sorts erupted within higher education: Mary Lefkowitz, a white scholar of classical literature from Wellesley College published an attack on Martin Bernal, a white scholar of world history from Cornell University. The attack was targeted at Bernal's 1987 book Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece 1785-1985 (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1987), which among many other things, offered the argument that ancient Greece owed its cultural achievements to ancient Egypt, and that ancient Egypt had been the victim of a racist smear campaign in modern times, with the result being a denial of the African culture at the heart of ancient Egypt. In her book, Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became and Excuse to Teach Myth as History (New York: Basic Books, 1996), Lefkowitz claimed that Bernal, (and, by extension, scholarship in general which promoted what she called the "Afrocentric myth") was doing irreparable damage to the standards of higher education and to the students of American universities.  

Quickly, however, this furor expanded out from higher education and into the realm of popular culture: what became known as "the Black Athena controversy" was a topic covered in major newspapers and magazines, radio and television talk shows, museum lecture circuits, and academic programs and journals having nothing to do with the study of ancient history.   Clearly, the controversy struck a nerve with people of many walks of life and with many different opinions on the relationship between race and the study of ancient history.

The controversy generated an enormous amount of discussion, both in print and online. The below link is a link to some of the primary sources associated with the Black Athena controversy.


Individually run sites:

Ancient Egypt Portal

Gavin's Egyptomania Pages

Reeder's Egypt Page